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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The work of body cells is done by ____, under the direction of instructions stored in molecules of ____, each of which is called a ____. The sum total of these genetic instructions for a given species is called its ____.
proteins
DNA
chromosone
genome
Each normal person inherits___ chromosones, ___ from each parent. The gentic instructions in chromosones are organized into units called ___. each of which contains instructions for a specific ____, which in turn is composed of chemical building blocks called ____ ____.
46
23
genes
protien
amino acids
Genetic instructions are "written" in a chemical code, made up of four pair of bases:___,___,____,____. These pairs are arranged in groups of ___.(how Many?)which are called ____.
adenine
guanine
cytosine,
thymine
three
triplets
The human reproductive cells, which are called ___, include the male's ___and the females_____.
gametes
sperm
ove
When the gametes nuclei fuse, a living cell called____ is formed
zygote
This new cell recieves ____ chromosomes from the father and ___ from the mother.
23
23
The sum total of all the genes a person inherits is called the ______
genotype
The chromosomes in a pair are generally identical or similar. Some genes come in several slight, normal variations called ____.
alleles
The developing person's sex is determined by the ____pair of chromosomes. In the female, this pair is composed of two ____-shaped chromosomes and is designated ____. In the male, this pair contains one ___ and one ___ chromosome and is therefore designated____.
23
x
xx
x
y
xy
The critical factor in the determination of a zygotes sex is which ____(sperm/ova) reaches the gamete first. In a stressful pregnancy, ____(XX/XY) embroyos are more likely to be expelled in a miscarriage, or ____ _____.
sperm
XY
spontaneous abortion
(text and changing policy) At birth, the overall sex ration has always _____(favored males/facored females/been roughly equal) In countries such as China, prenatal tests show that the sex of the child has been used to ____.
been roughly equal
abort femal fetues
Identical twins which develop from one _____(are/are not) genetically identical.
zygote
are
Twins who begin life as two seperate zygotes created by fertilization of two ovs are called _____twins. Such babies have approximately ___percent of their genes in common.
dizygotic
50
Dizygotic births occur naturally about once in every____ births. Women in their ___(what age?) are threee times more likely to hav dizygotic twins than women in their _____.
60's
late 30's
early twenties
Within hours of conception, the zygote begins to grow through the process of ___. At about the eight-cell stage, the cells start to___, with various cells beginning to specialize and reproduce at differnt rates. Genes affect this process through ____-____ ____ mechanisms that code for specific protiens.
duplication
differentiate
0n-off switching
The sum total of all the gentic traits that are actually expresses is called the ____.
phenotype
Most human characteristics are affected by many genes, and so they are ____. and by many factors, and so they are ____
polygenetic
multifacterial
A phenotype that reflects the sum of the contributions of all genes involved in its determination illustrates the _____ pattern of genetic interaction. Examples include genes that affect ____ and ____ _____.
additive
height
skin colr (or hair curliness)
Less often, genes interact in a ____ fashion. In one example of this pattern, some genes are more influentail that others, this is called the ____-____ pattern. In this pattern, the more influentail gene is called the ____ and the weaker gene is called the _____
nonadditive
dominant-recessive
dominant
recessive
In one variation of this pattern, the phenotype influenced primarily but not exclusively, by the dominant gene, this is the ____ pattern.
incomplete dominance
Complicating inheritance further is the fact that dominant genes sometimes do not completely ____ the phenotype. This may be caused by ____,____, or other factors.
penetrate
temperature
stress
Some recessive genes are located only on the X chromosomes and so called ___-___. Examples of such genes are the ones that determine ___. Because they have only one X chromosomes,____(females/males) are more likely to have these characteristics in their phenotype.
x-linked
color blindness
many allergies
several diseases
and some learning disablilties
males
Whether a gene is inherited from the mother or father ____(dooes/does not) influence its behavior. This thendency of genes is called ___. or tagging.
does
parental inprinting
When the twenty three chromosomes pairs divide up during the formation of the gametes, which of the two pairs will end up in a prticular gamete is determined by____
chance
Genetic variabiity is also affected by ___-___ of genes and by the interaction of genetic instructions in wayys unique to the individual. Another mechinism of genetic diversity is ____ ehich refers to to the alteration of genetic information caused by ____ factors
crossing-over
mutation
environmental
Genetic diversity helps safegaurd _____.
health
(Thinking like a scientist) The international effort to map the complete human genetic code reffered to as the ____ ____ ____. In 2000, they publishe two drafts, rvealing, most inportantly that all living creatures ___(have differnt/share) genes.
Human Genome Project
share
A person who has a gene in his genotype that is not expressed in the phenotype but that can be passed on to another persons offspring is said to be a ____of that gene
carrier
The complexity of genetic interaction is particularliy apparent in ____. which is the study of the genetic origins of ___ characteristics. These include traits such as ____;psychological disorders such as ____; and ___ traits such as _____.
behavior genetics
psychological
personality
socibility
assertiveness
moodiness
and fearfullness
schizophrenia
depression
and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
cignitive
memory for numbers
spatial perception and fluency of expression
Most behavioral traits are affected by the ___ of large numbers of ___ with ___factors. Traits that are plastic early in life ____(always/do not always) remain plaxtic thereafter.
interaction
genes
environmental
do not always
The most feared form of senility is ____ disease, which occurs when the protein ____accumulates in the brain and kells cells. When thsi disease occurs before age ___, which is referred to as ___-____, the cause is entirely____. More common is the ___-___ form of the disease, which is mor prevelant in people over 80 who inherited a particular allele of the ____gene. ALthough the gene increases the risk of the disease, other health indicators are also factors, including ____.
Alzheimers
amyloid B
50
early onset
genetic
late onset
ApoE
hypertension
diabetes and high cholesterol
Psychopathologies such as ___are genetically based traits that are subject to ___influences.
depression
antisocial behavior
phobias
compulsions
environmental
Environmental influences ____(do/do not) play an inportant role in the appearance of schizophrenia. One predisposing factor is birth during ____, probably because a certain ___is more prevalent at this time of year.
do
late winter
virus
Alcoholism ___(is/is not) partly genetic; furthermore. its expression ____(is/is not) affected by the environment. Certain temperamental traits correlate ewith abusive drinking, including ____.
is
is
quick temper
a willingness to take risk
and a high level of anxiety
On a particular level genes and environmenatal affect ___(most/every/few) human characteristics
every
3 major reasons reseachers study genetic and chromosomal abnormalities
They provide insight into the complexibilities of genetic interactions, knowledge about their origins suggest hoew to limit their harmful consequences, and misinformation and prejudice compound the problems of people who are affected by such abnormalities
Chromosoma; abnormalities occur during the formation of the ___, producing a sperm or ovum that does not have the normal complement of chromosomes
gametes
The variable that most often correlates with chromosomal abnormalities is ___ ___ When cells in a zygote end up with more of fewer than 46 chromosomes the reult is a person who is ___ .
maternal age
mosiac
Most fetues whith chromosomal abnormalities are ___ ___. Neverthe less about 1 in every ____ newborns has one chromosome too few or one too many, leading to a cluster of characteristics called a ____>
spontaneouly aborted
200
syndrome
The most common extra chromosome sydrome is _____. which is also called ____-___. People with this syndrome age____(faster/more slowly) than other adults. By middle age, people with Downs sundrome almost invarably develop ____, which severly impairs their already limited ___skills.
Down syndrome
trisomy-21
faster
Alzhemiers disease
communication
Physical and psychological characteristic associated with downs syndrome
certain facial characteristics such as thick tongue, round face, slanted eyes as well as distinctive hands, feet and fingerprints. Many also have hearing problems, heart abnormalities, muscle weakness, and short stature
About 1 in every 500 infants is either missing a ____chromosome or has two or more chromosomes. One resulting sybdrome is ____. in which a boy inherits the ___ chromosome pattern
sex
Klinefelter syndrome
xxy
Most of the known genetic disorders are ____(dominant/recessive) Genetic disorders usually ____(are.are not) serious disabling. It is much ____(more/less) likely that a person ia carrier of one or more harmful genes than that he or she has abnormal chromosomes.
dominant
are not
more
Two exceptions are the central nervous disease called ____ and the disorder that causes victimes to exhibit uncontrolable tics and explsove outburst called ____.
Huntingtons disease
Tourette syndrome
In some individuals, part of of the x chromosome is attached by such a thin string of molecules that it seems about to break off; this abnormalitiy is called ____syndrome.
fragile x
Genetic disorders that are ____ and ____ claim more victims than dominant ones. Three common recessive disorders are ___,___, and ___-___.
recessive
multifactorial
cystic fibrosis
thalassemia
sickle-cell anemia
Through ____ ___,couples today can learn more about their genes and about their chances of concieving a child with chromosomal or other genetic abnormalities
prenatal genetic counseling
four situation when genetic counseling strongly recommended
For those who have a parent,sibling or child with serious gentic condition
those who have a istory od spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, or infertility
couples who from the same ehnic group or subgroup
women over age 35 and men over age 40
Among the many reproductive alternatives available to those who are carriers of serious conditions or high risk because of their age or family history are _____. The innovative new prenatal therapy called ___ ___ involves the altering of an organism's genetic instructions
avoid pregnancy
plan to adopt or use artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization
genetic enineering
When a sperm and an ovum merge, a one-celled ____is formed.
a. zygote
b.reproductive cell
c.gamete
d. monozygoye
a zygote
Genes are discrete segments that provide the biochemical instructions that each vell needs to become a
a. a zygote
b. a chromosome
c. a specific part of a functioning human bidy
d. deozyribonucleic acid
c a specific part of a fuctioning human body
( The sygote is the first cell of the developing person
Chromosomes are molecules of DNA that carry genes
DNA molecules contain gentic information)
In the male, 23rd pair of chromosomes is designated ____, in the female theis pair is designated ___.
a. xx,xy
b. xy,xx
c.xo,xxy
d.xxy,xo
b. xy male xx female
Since the 23rd pair of chromosomes in female is xx, each ovum carries an
a. xx xygote
b. x zygote
c. xy zygote
d. x chromosome
d x chromosome - when the gamete is formed one member of each chromosome pair splits off; because females both are x chroomosomes, each ovum must carry z x chromosome.

(
When a zygote splits, the two identical, independent clusters that develop become
a. dizygotic twins
b. monozygotic twins
c. fraternal twins
d. trizygotic twins
b monozyotic twins (mono means one thus monzygotic twins develop from one zygote (Dizygotic or fraternal twins develop from two zygotics and a trizygotic birth would result in triplets)
Which of the presidposing factor for schizophrinia
a. birth during late winter
b. having a close relative with the illness
c. inadequate oxygen at birth
d. each of the above is a predisposing factor
d each of them
Most of the known genetic disorders are
a. dominant
b. recessive
c. seriously disabling
d. sex-linked
a dominant
Most dominant disorders are neither seriously disabling nor sex-linked
When we say that a characteristic is multifactial we mean
a. many gens are involved
b. many environmental factors are involved
c. many genetic and environmental factors are involved
d. the characteristic is polygenetic
c. many genetic and environmental factors are involved
Genes are segments of molecules of
a. genotype
b.DNA
c.karatype
d.phenotype
b DNA
(genoype is a person genetic potential
karotype is a picture of a persons chromosomes
phenotype is the actual expression of genptype
The potentail for genetic diversity in humans is great because
a. there are approximately 8 million possible combinations of chromosomes
b. when the sperm and ovum unite, genetic combinations not present in either parent can be formed
c. jus before a chromosome pair divides during the formation of gametes, genes cross over, producing recombinations
d. all of the above
d all of the above
A chromosomal abnormality that affects males only involves an
a. XO chromosome
b. xxx xhromosome
c. YY chromosome
d. xxy chromosomal pattern
d xxy
(xo and xxx affect females
yy is no such abnormality
Polygentic complexity is most apparent in ____characteristics
a. physical
b. psychological
c. recessive gene
d. dominant gene
b psychological
Babies born with trisomy21 (down syndrome) are ofte n
a. born to older parents
b. unusally aggressive
c. abnormally tall
d. blind
a born to older parents
To say that a trait is polygenic means
a. many genes make it mmorelikely that the individual will inheret the trait
b, several genes must be present in order for the individual to inherit the trait
c. the trait is multifactorial
d. most people carry genes for the trait
b. several genes must be present in order for the individual to inherit the trait
Some gentic diseases are recessive, so the child cannot inherit the condition unless both parents
a. have Kleinfelter sysndrome
b. carry the same recessive gene
c. have xo chromosome
d. have the disease
b carry the same recessive gene
a chromosome pair inherited by genetic females
xx
identical twins
monozygotic
soerm and ovum
gametes
the first cell of developing person
zygote
a person who has a recessive gene in his genotype that is not expressed in the phenotype
carrier
fraternal twins
dizygotic
a pattern which each gene in question make an active contribution to the final outcome
additive
a DNA molecule
chromosome
the beahvioral or physical expression of genetic potential
phenotype
a chromosomal abnormality
fragile x syndrome
alternate versions of a gene
alleles
chromosome pair inherited by genetic males
XY
a persons entire gentic inherentance
genotype
Which of the following provides the best broad description of the relationship between heridity and environment in determining height?
a. Heriditary is the primary influence, with environment affecting the deveol]pment only in severe situations
b. Heredity and environment contribute equally to devopment
c. environment is the major influenceon physical conditions
d. Heriditery directs the individuals potential and environment determines whether and to what degree the individual reaches the potentail
d herditary directs the potential and environment determines whether and to what degree the individual reaches that potential
"late-onset" Alzhemiers disease
a. is less common thanearly-onset" form of the illness
b. is entirely gentis
c. is multifactorial and associated with abnormal genes as well ass as hypertension, and other other health indicators
d. is associated with sbnormal gene found more often in African american then in european americans
c. is multifactorial and assocaited with with abnormal genes as well as hypertension and other health indicators
(late onset more common than ewarly onset and abnormal gene found more often european americans than african americans
Males with fragile x syndrome are
a. feminie in appearance
b. less everly affected than females
c.freq retarded intellectually
d. likely to have fatty deposits around the breast
c. freq retarded intellectually
Disorders that are ____ are most likely to pass undetected from generation to generation
a. dominant
b. dominant and polygenic
c. recessive
d. recessive and multifactorial
d, recessive and multifactorail
The effect of a gene on a particular physical characteristic depends on whether the gene come froms the mother or father. This is called
a. dominant-recessive pattern
b. imprintingc. the additive pattern
d. molecular genetics
b imprinting
Dizygotic twins result when
a. a single egg is fertilized by a sperm and then splits
b. a single egg is fertilized by two different sperm
c. 2 eggs is fertilized by 2 differnt sperm
d. either a single egg is fertilized by one one sperm or two eggs are fertilized by two differnt sperm
c 2 eggs are fertilized by two differnt sperm
Molecules of Dna that in humans are organized into 23 complementary pairs are called
a. zygotes
b. genes
c. chromosomes
d.ova
c chromosomes
Shortly after the zygote is formed, it begins the processes of duplication and division. Each resulting new cell has
a. the same number of chromosomes as was contained in the zygote
b. half the number of chromosomes as was contained in the zygote
c. twice, then four times, then eight times the numbers of chromosomes as was contained in the zygote
d. all the chromosomes except that determine sex
a the same number of chromosomes as was contained in the zygote
If an ovum is fertilized by a sperm bearing a Y chromosone
a. a female will develop
b. cell division will result
c. a male will develop
d. spontaous abortion will occur
c a male will devlop
When the male cells in the testes and the female cells in the ovaries divide to produce gametes, the process differs from that of production of all other cells. As a result of the different process, the gametes have
a. one rather than both members of each chromosome pair
b. 23 chromosome pairs
c. X but not Y chromosomes
d. chromosomes form both parents
a. one rahter than both members of each chromosomal pair
Most human traits are
a. polygenetic
b. multifactorial
c. determined by dominant-recessive pattern
d. both a and b
d. both polygenetic and multifactorial
Genotype is to phenotype as ___ is to _____.
a. gentic potentail;physical appearance
b. physical expression;genetic potential
c. sperm;ovum
d. gamete;zygote
a. genetic ptential to physical expression
The genes that influence height and skin color interact according to the ___ pattern
a. dominant- recessive
b. x-linked
c. additive
d. nonadditive
Randy son was born with XXY chromosomal pattern. It is likely that his sons conditinh
X-linked recessive genes explain why some traits seem to be passed from
a. father to son
b. father to daughter
c. mother to daughter
d. mother to son
d. mother to son
x-linked genes are located on the x chromosomes, because males inherit only 1 x chromosome they are more likely than females to have these characteristics in their phenotype
A 35 year women who is pregnant is most likely to undergo which type of test for the detection of prenatal chromosomal or genetic abnormalities?
a.pre-inplantation testing
b. ultrasound
c.amniocentesis
d. alpha-fetoprotien assay
c amniocentesis
Randys sonwas born with an XXY chromosomal pattern. It is likely that his sons condition will:
a. go unndetected until pruberty
b. benefit from hormone supplements
c. develop some female sex characteristics at puberty
d. be characterized by all of the above
d. be characterized by all of the above
Dr Jansen, who studies the genic origins of psychological chafracteristics, would probably describe herself as
a. genetic engineer
b. molecular geneticist
c. behavior genetisist
d. developmental biologist
c. behavior geneticist
Which of the following is an inherited abnormality that quite possibly could develop into a recognizable syndrome?
a.just before dividing to form a sperm or ovum,corresponding gene segments of a chromosome pair break off and are exchanged
b. just before conception, a chromosome pair splits imprecisely, resulting in a mixture of cells
c. a person inherits a z chromosome in which part of the chromosome is attched to the rest of it by a very slim string of molecules
d. a person inherits a recessive gene on his y chromosome
c a person inherits a z chromosome in which part of the chromosome is attached to the rest of it by a very slim string of molecules
Some men are colorblind because they inherit a particular recessive gene from their mother That recessive gene is carried onthe
a. X chromosome
b. XX chromosome
c. chromosome
d.x or Y chromosome
a x chromosome
If your mother is much taller than your father is most likely that your height will be
a. abouth the same as your mother, because x chromosome determines height
b. about the same as your father because Y chromosome determines height
c. somewhere between your mother and father because parental imprinting
d. greather than mother and father because of your grandparent dominat gene
c somewhere between your mother and father because parental imprinting
If a dizygotic twin develops schizophrenia the likehood of the other twin experiencing serious mental illness is much lower than in the case of monzygotic twins. Thsi suggest
a. schizophrenia is caused by genes
b. schizophrenia is influenced by genes
c. environment is uninportant in the development of schizophrenia
d. monozygotic twins are especially vunerable to schizophrenia
b schizophrenia is influenced by genes
A persons skin turns yellow orange as a result of carrot juice diey regimen. This is an example
a. an environmental influence
b. an alteration in genotype
c. polygentic inheritance
d. incomplete dominance
a an environmental influence
Jason has an inherited, dominant disorder that causes him to exibit uncontrollable tics and explossive outburst. Jason most likely would be diagnosed with
a. Klinefelter syndrome
b. Huntingtons disease
c. Fragile X syndrome
d. Tourette sundrome
d Tourette syndrome
If a man carries the recessive gene for systic fibrosis and his wife does not, the chances of them bringing a child with cystic fibrosis is
a. one in four
b. fifty fifty
c. zero
d. dependent on wifes ethnic background
c zero - cystic fibrosis is a recessive gene disorder, therefore in order for a child to inherent this disease he or she must recieve the recessive gene from both parents
48 year old Clayton has an accumulation of amyloid B in his brain that is causing some cognitive dysfunction. Clayton would probably be diagnosed with
a. trisomy 21
b. early onset alzhemiers
c. down syndrome
d. schizophrenia
b early onset alzhemiers
Schizophrenia is most accurately described as a
a. genetic psychopathology
b. environmental pschopathology
c.multifactirail psychopathology
d. osychopathology or unknown cause
c. multifactorial psychopathology
Laurie and Brad who boh have a history of alcoholism in their families are concerned that the child they hope to have will inherit a genetic predisposition to alcoholism. Based in information presnted in text what advice should you offer them?
a. stop worrying alcoholism is only weakly genetic
b. it is lmost certain that your child will become alholic
c. social influences such as family and peer environment play a critical role in determining whether alsoholism is expressed
d. wait to have children until you are both middleage in order to see if the two of youbecome alcoholics
c. social influences such as the family and peer environment play a crital role in determing whether alcolism is expressed
16 year old Joey experiences some mental slowness and hearing and heart problems, yet he is able to care for himself and is unusually sweet tempered. Joey probably has
a. mentally retarded
b. alzheimers disease
c. Kleinfelter syndrome
d. down syndrome
d down syndrome
Genetically Claudes potential height is 6 foot. Because he did recieve a balanced diet however he grew to only 5'9'' claude actual height is an example of
a. recessive gene
b. dominant gene
c. genotype
d. phenotype
d phenotype
Winona inherited a gene from her mother that, regardless of her fathers contribution to her genotype, will be expressed in her phenotype. Evedintly the Winona recieved from her mother is a ___ gene.
a. polygenic
b. recessive
c. dominat
d.x-linked
c dominant