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17 Cards in this Set

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Stimulus Generalization





Conditioned response occurs to similar stimuli to conditioned stimuli (baby & grandma).





How does 'Blocking' prevent classical conditioning:

Blocking occurs when there is already a good predictor of a stimulus. E.g. an air horn is sounded before you get smacked. If someone clicks before the air horn, the click doesn't become a conditioned stimulus due to blocking.

Explain second order conditioning in relation to Pavlov's dog experiment:

After the tone becomes a conditioned stimulus, its association with another neutral stimulus can cause they to be turned into a conditioned stimulus (but of less intensity). E.g. a light is flashed with the the tone, after repeated trials, the light alone causes salivation in dog.

Define sensory preconditioning:

When learning occurs without an unconditioned response. In other words, a CS and US pairing is not needed for conditioning. For example, a child sees a man waking his dog everyday. One day the dog bites him, and now the child is also scared of the man.

What did taste aversion learning suggest about the way classical conditioning works?

That associations between CS and CR are more strongly formed when they seem to belong together. E.g. the saccharine with water, compared to light & click with water.

What is latent inhibition and how does it affect classical conditioning?

Its when the subjects has had extensive previous exposure to a stimulus, so its harder to use in classical conditioning compared to something more unusual. E.g. Me with Gin.

Define the law of effect:

Positive consequences increase likelihood or probability of a response.

Main difference between classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning:

CS elicits the CR




Subjects emits response in order to gain reward

What did B.F Skinner do?

Chucked his infant daughter in an 'air crib' that controlled air supply and a roll of nappies. Critics called it dehumanizing.

What was B.F Skinner's take on instrumental conditioning:

Operant conditioning:


Response followed by reinforcer, increases strength of response.




Response followed by punisher, strength of response decreases.

Define Acquisition with examples in the context of Instrumental conditioning:

When behavior is shaped by successive approximations.


E.g. Teaching someone to kick flip, first reward for ollie, then flick, then one foot landing etc.

Explain Premack's principle/experiment:

High probability behaviors were used as reinforcers for low probability behaviors. E.g. with the kids at nursery school, sitting quietly was reinforced with instructions to run and scream.




He did the experiment with rats and the reinforcer of running on a wheel.

How can the effects of punishment differ to reinforcement?

Punishers can reinforce more than rewards but often cause object generalization.



Stimulus Discrimination:

Organism doesn't respond to similar stimuli to the conditionedstimulus (opposite of generalization)


Discrimination Training:

The training of an organism to undergo stimulusdiscrimination instead of stimulus generalization, e.g. dog only gets rewardedif it comes to its owners voice, not some random.

With intradimensional (e.g. two shades of green) stimulus control, at what point is a stimuli most often discriminated from another?

At more extreme values.

Can animals discriminate between complex stimuli?

Some easier than others, but yes.