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138 Cards in this Set

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Type of survey made for the purpose of supplying a title company and lender with survey and location information data necessary for the issuing of title and/or mortgage insurance. Determines property lines, location of improvements, identifying all easements, utilities and other conditions affecting the property

Title Insurance Coverage Survey

Survey conducted to locate and/or investigate surface/subsurface archaeological ruins

Archaeological Survey

Survey that established the true property corners and property lines of a parcel of land. Typically performed to obtain building permits, to resolve property disputes and to locate easement lines.

Boundary Survey

The original survey, resurvey, or retracement of public lands within the Public Land Survey System of the United States for restoration of property lines

Cadastral Survey

Survey measurements made prior to or while construction is in progress to control elevation, horizontal position, dimensions, and configuration for buildings, fences, roads, etc. Surveyor sets stakes for the proper location, elevation and relative placement of most types of infrastructure improvements.

Construction Survey

Survey that provides precise locations of horizontal and vertical positions of points for use in boundary determination, mapping for aerial photographs, construction survey, or other needs

Control Survey

Survey that determines the elevation of various sections of a building or land. Typically used to aid in building plans and to determine if a property is in a flood zone.

Elevation or Floodplain Survey

Survey that takes into account the curvature of the earth and astronomic observations. Uses a coordinate system for locating points on the earth. Used on large scale planning projects

Geodetic Survey

A system f numerous Earth-orbiting satellites that can be used to determine the location (latitude, longitude and elevation) of a receiver or station on the Earth within about 2m. Hand held receivers can be used for producing accurate geologic maps, acquiring navigation data for 3D seismic surveys, and staking large-scale construction projects

Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

A survey of landed property establishing or re-establishing lengths and direction of boundary lines. Land boundaries are usually defined by ownership, beginning with the earliest owners through the current owners

Land Survey

A transit in which a laser is mounted over the sighting telescope to project a clearly visible narrow beam onto a small target at the survey site

Laser Transmit

Minor adjustment of a boundary line in order to transfer land between adjacent property owners

Lot Line Adjustment (Boundary Line Adjustment)

A combination of boundary and topographic surveys for preparation of a site plan to be used for designing improvements or developments, and obtaining government building permits

Site Plan Survey (Lot Survey or Plot Plan Survey)

A time honored land surveying method of describing land in terms of shape and boundary dimensions. (Legal description of a lot)

Metes and Bounds

A survey in which the curvature of the earth is usually neglected. The computations of relative positions of stations being made by plan geometry and plane trigonometry. Used to develop cadastral maps. Used for small to moderate size landscape architecture project.

Plane Survey

Survey that obtains measurements of quantities, usually in conjunction with a construction process, earthwork, etc. Often times the land surveyor will work closely with a civil engineer, architect or landscape architect

Quantity Survey

Survey performed to physically locate structures and improvements on a parcel of land, generally for mortgage purposes.

Record Drawing (As Built Survey)

A survey of "registered" (Torrens-title) land, usually done to shorten the length legal descriptions, or divide larger parcels of "Torrens-title" land onto smaller tracts

Registered Land Survey (R.L.S.)

Reconnaissance, preliminary survey and location survey for an alignment or linear type of feature such as a road, railroad, canal, pipeline or utility line

Route Survey

Survey that records the subdivision of a tract of land into smaller parcels, showing monumentation and mathematical survey data on a map, conforming to local governing ordinances.

Subdivision Survey (Subdivision Plat)

Survey that locates natural and man made features such as buildings, improvements, fences, elevations, land contours, trees, streams, etc. May be required by a government agency or used by engineers and/or architects for the design of improvements or developments on a site

Topographic Survey

What are the three types of Maps?

- 7.5 minute quadrangle maps (1:24,000 & 1:25,000)

-15 minute quadrangle maps (1:50,000 & 1:62,500)

-Standard-edition (1:63,360)

What intervals are grid lines set at on a map?

1000 meters

Shown by blue ticks in the margins of the map or with full grid lines. Actual meter value shown for ticks nearest the southeast and northwest corners of the map.

Corner where both the latitude and longitude lines are market as ending in 30" seconds. Center of a 15 minute map of the same area. Only one of these per 7.5 minute map.

Hard Corner

located at the bottom of the topography map & shows the different angles between TRUE NORTH, MAGNETIC NORTH, & GRID NORTH

Declination Chart

directional line between any position on earth to the True North Pole. Usually symbolized by an arrow with a start on the map

True North

direction to the magnetic north pole. usually symbolized by half an arrow head

Magnetic North

North that was established by the vertical grid lines during the map making process. Usually symbolized by the letters GN or Y

Grid North

difference between one contour line & the next. This value is located at the bottom center of the map under the scale

Contour Interval

Indicated by closely spaced line contours


Indicated by circular contours with lines radiating to the center


Less closely spaced lines

Gentle Slopes

form a v-shape pointing down the hill


closely spaced contours

Steep slopes

Circular contours culminating in a high point


v-shaped contours that point up a hill


tent to be North/South or East/West bearings to the highest spots in an area but not necessarily true longitude or latitude lines. Results in an uneven meshing of the township lines at state lines, rivers and other borders when surveyors make baselines from different centers

Base lines (BL)

a small 6"x6" concrete pillar with a brass USGS disc marker called a "Tablet". These are physically placed in the ground, usually at mountain summits, but also in the flat areas around a city & contain the exact elevation above sea level & latitude & longitude

Bench Mark (BM)

Usually appear only on maps along roads, near sea level & in deserts where the contour lines are naturally widely spaces (very large flat areas of land). Marked on the map with a "Triangle with elevation"

Horizontal Controls

area measurements which are public records used to record the value, extent & ownership of land as a basis for taxation

Public Land Survey (USPLS)

Shown on Topo map as very light red lines and numbers

Quadrangle Markings

vertical rows of townships, numbered East & West from a survey base line. numbered along both the top and bottom margins of the maps


each red outlined box with its associated number. Equals 1 sq. mile or 640 acres

Section of Land

Squares in groups of 36 blocks which are repeated over and over. These are numbered along left and right margins


208.7 feet = 43,560 square feet = 160 square rods


The approximately rectangular subdivisions of the township and section

Aliquot Parts

Creates the tax roll annually by identifying, locating, and valuing all property subject to ad valorem taxes in a county

Assessor's Office

The rotation angle of the telescope around a vertical axis, measured (counter clockwise) from due north


The angle the telescope is lifted above the horizontal plan


process by which the surveyor checks for accuracy during the process of leveling once the equipment is setup


a map referenced to a coordinate system that depicts the fundamental map elements such as PLSS section corners, streets, buildings, streams, etc.

Base Map

unit of direction used in denoting the direction of a line bounding an area of land usually measured in degrees (o) minutes (') and seconds ("). Horizontal angle is measured clockwise from north to some point


unit of length equal to 66' which is used especially in US Public Land Surveys. Surveying tapes are often referred to this and 10 square = 1 acre. Typically used for surveying very hilly sites


Process the surveyor uses to determine a new point and elevation when looking through the instrument


Surveying marker that is magnetized for easy detection and zinc plated to resist corrosion.


Surveying process of determining the difference in elevation between two or more points by measuring the vertical distance between two points


7.92" (surveying measurement)


Any portion, piece, division or parcel of land


An alternative marking choice for survey and construction sites, underground locating and many other uses. Spring up when run over by lawn mowers, graders and heavy equipment

Marking Whiskers

a "line" on the earths surface which follows the shortest distance from pole to pole


5,280 feet = 1760 yards = 80 chains


A description of property formally set fourth in a conveyance, together with the boundaries thereof, in order to easily identify it


The origination and destination of a Metes & Bounds legal description

Point of beginning

Technique of distance measurement wherein the observer reads the intercept subtended on a graduated rod between two marks on the reticle of the telescope. It is based on the height observation of a 6' object.

Stadia measurements

A series of consecutive line segments whose lengths and directions are determined by field measurements


The removal or elimination of a problem, nuisance, or other disturbance especially of public health or safety significance. Allows for the removal of a site improvement not allowed by code


A street that generally has two or more moving lanes, traffic signals, may be designated a truck or bus route, and is intended to serve traffic moving through an area

Arterial Street

Principal Street within the network for the provision of bother intercity and intracity traffic movement

Major Arterial Street

Secondary Street within the network for the purpose of traffic movement between the neighborhoods and other areas within the city

Minor Arterial Street

Areas determined by local government and state and regional agencies which allow for the adoption of land development regulations, density requirements, and special permitting requirements by these entities.

Areas of state critical concern

Local regulations that control design, construction, and materials used in construction. Based on health and safety standards

Building codes

An authorization issued by a government agency allowing construction of a project according to approved plans and specifications

Building (construction) Permit

The bulk and concentration of physical development of uses permitted in a district. Examples: Lot coverage, Floor Area Ratio, Open Space Ratio, Height, Landscape Volume Ratio, Building Volume Ratio

Building Intensity Standards

Street lines with trees or constructed with a landscaped middle


Area of land which is set aside to provide transition between different land uses and to eliminate or reduce the adverse environmental impacts and incompatible land use impacts. Serves as a protective barrier


Any structure or component erected as a permanent improvement to real property that adds to its value and useful life

Capital Improvement

Long-range multi-year plan of capital improvement projects that are used in the development of annual operating and capital budgets, strategic plans, and long range financial plans

Capital Improvement Program (CIP)

A series of narrowings or curb extensions, used at mid block locations only, that alternate from one side of the street to the other, forming s-shaped curves; a traffic calming technique


A pattern of development in which industrial and commercial facilities, and homes are grouped together on parcels of land in order to leave parts of the land undeveloped. Zoning ordinances permit this by allowing smaller lot sizes where part of the land is left as open space. Component of PUD

Cluster Development

Streets that connect residential and local streets and neighborhood connector streets through or adjacent to more than one neighborhood and have continuity between arterial streets. Conveys traffic out of the neighborhoods to the arterial streets

Collector Streets

A written agreement between two or more parties in which a party or parties pledge to perform or not perform specified acts with regard to property; usually found in such real estate documents as deeds, mortgages, leases and contracts for deed


An agreement included in a deed to real property that the buyer (grantee) will be limited as to the future use of the property

Restrictive Covenant

A written instrument used to transfer title to property, such as a deed


Dead-end street with only one inlet/outlet and a turnaround area at its closed end.


document that transfers ownership of real estate. Contains the names of both the old and new owners, and a legal description of the property and signed by the person transferring the property (Seller)


Legal document that conveys title to real property to a 3rd party. 3rd party then holds the title until the owner of the property has repaid the debt in full. Can be used instead of a mortgage

Deed of Trust

Transfers the grantee any and all of the legal rights the grantor has in the parcel of real property. Used to clear errors on the title

Quit Claim Deed

statistical study of the characteristics of human populations, such as size, growth, density, distribution, and vital statistics as well as how populations change over time due to births, deaths, migration and ageing.


The average number of people, families, or housing units on one unit of land density is also expressed as dwelling units per acre


Public document used by a governmental agency to analyze the significant environmental effects of a proposed project, to identify alternatives and to disclose possible ways to reduce or avoid possible environmental damage

Environmental Impact Report (EIR)

A legal right or permission, giving a person or entity limited use of another's property.


Type of easement that benefits the holder personally and is not associated with any land they own (ex. public utility's right to run power lines through another's property)

Easement in Gross

Type of easement held incident to ownership of some land (ex. the right to run a ditch through a neighbors yard to drain your land)

Easement Appurtenant

A grant by a property owner to the public or other person or entity over a specific tract of land for a specific use or purpose for a specific time frame

Temporary Easement

A grant by a property owner to the public, over a specific tract of land for a specific use or purpose of indefinite duration

Permanent Easement

A legal means of protecting beautiful views and associated aesthetic quality along a site by restricting change in existing features without government approval

Scenic Easement

Federal, sate and local requirements for managing the nations environmental health. Primarily concerned with temporary and permanent measures for sediment and erosion control and wetland or stream protection

Environmental Regulations

The boundary of a property which abuts an existing or dedicated public right of way, water body, or similar barrier


A corridor composed of natural vegetation with specific measures designed to mitigate fire, flood and erosion hazard, land use planning, and development


A comparison of the development proposal against environmental constraints or other conditions which determine the carrying capacity of a specific land area to accommodate development without adverse impacts


What are the 9 Land Classifications?






-Farm Residential


-Catfish Farming


What are the 4 things needed for a land-use plan?

-Definition of goals

-An ordering of land and human and material resources

-An explicit statement of the methods, organization, responsibilities and schedule to be used

-Agreed targets

The vertical view corridor that might normally be 3 degrees measured up or down from the height of the viewers eyes

Line of sight

provides access to residences and businesses within a neighborhood

Local/residential street

Development that is created in response to patterns of separate uses that is typical in suburban areas necessitating reliance on cars

Mixed use development

The proportion of a site that is required to remain as open space and may be used for recreation, agriculture and resource protection

Open Space Ratio (OSR)

Formal legislative enactment by the government body of a governing body. Must not be in conflict with any higher form of law to have the full force and effect of law within the boundaries to which it applies


A type of development that is a project or subdivision that consists of common property and improvements that are owned and maintained by an owner's association for the benefit and use of the individual units within the project.

Planned Unit Development (PUD)

The right of the government to enforce laws for public welfare, including such things as building codes, zoning, etc.

Police Powers

Number of people in a given area

Population Density

Determines how an area is being used and developed and how such use may project into future uses.

Regional Land Use

Publicly owned space for current or future facilities such as highways, streets, or trails, and above and below-ground utilities. Generally extends approximately 10-20' beyond the curb into the yard area.

Right-of-way (ROW)

dedicated to public use on a subdivision plat. Must be constructed under permit issued by the governing body and comply with the provisions of the regulations during construction in order to be accepted for maintenance

New Roadway Right-of-way

Area of real property in which the governing body has dedicated or acquired interest in the real property

Public Right-of-way

Minimum horizontal distance required between any lot line or right-of-way and the nearest point of a building, structure or improvement located or to be located on the lot


A setback at a street and driveway intersection that restricts anyone form placing view obstructions at the height of the driver's line of sight generally located between 3" & 6" above ground for a specified horizontal distance related to the street design speed

Sight-line triangle

A legal tool for detailed design and implementation of a defined portion of an area covered by a general plan. May include all detailed regulations, conditions, programs and/or proposed legislation that may be necessary or convenient for the systematic implementation of any general plan elements

Specific Area Plan (SAP)

Space between the buildings on either side of a street.


Tract of land divided by the owner into blocks, building lots, and streets according to a recorded plat


Development with the goal of preserving environmental quality, natural resources and livability for present and future generations

Sustainable development

Allows property owners to sell the development rights to their property while retaining ownership of the land itself. Often used to preserve a natural open space located on a large site proposed for residential development

Transfer of development rights

Means a modification or waiving of the provisions of code as applied to a specific property


legislative process that classified land in a community into different areas and districts. Regulates building dimensions, density, design and placement


A map that defines current zoning designations and land use

Zoning Map

a federal agency that employes more landscape architects than any other federal agency

Department of the Interior

The federal regulatory agency responsible for administering and enforcing federal environmental laws, including the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act and the Endangered Species Act

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Provides quality, responsive engineering services to the nation including, Planning, designing, building, and operating water resources and other civil works projects

Army Corps of Engineers

Agency responsible for administering the National Flood Insurance Program

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

Provides for wildlife conservation. Allows for surveys and investigations of wildlife to be conducted in the public domain

Fish and Wildlife Service

Primary federal law in the US governing water pollution. Makes it illegal to discharge any toxic or non-toxic pollution without a permit. Encourages the use of the best available technology for pollution control.

Federal Water Pollution Act of 1972 (FWPCA)(Clean Water Act)

A 1977 amendment to the FWPCA. Emphasizes the control of toxic pollutants.

Clean Water Act

Permitting system of the Clean Water Act that controls water pollution by regulating point and nonpoint sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the US

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

Governs how animal and plant species whose populations are dangerously in decline or close to extinction will be protected and recovered

Endangered Species Act

Regulates the treatment of water for human consumption. Requires testing for and elimination of contaminants for the protection of human health

Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)

Authorizes states and local agencies to carry out works of improvement for soil conservation, and for other purposes including flood prevention, conservation, development, utilization and disposal of water

Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act

Amendment to the federal safe drinking water act in 1986. Minimizes the potential for contamination of public ground water supplies

Wellhead Protection Program

National voice of the nursery and landscape industry. Sets standards for acceptable plant health and vigor. Publishes plant quality standards

American Nursery and Landscape Association (ANLA)

Develops technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services

American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)