Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What type of photoreceptor cells are most prevalent at the macula and fovea? Describe the vasculature of this area.
*it is avascular
What type of photoreceptor cell is found in the optic disk?
The optic disk has no photoreceptors - it is the site of the blind spot.
How does papilledema appear on fundascopic exam? What condition does this signal?
*the optic disk bulges and its margins becoem less distinct
*increased intracranial pressure
Which retinal ganglion cells cross at he optic chiasm? Which synapse at the ipsilateral LGN?
*nasal retinal ganglion cells cross at the chiasm
*temporal RGC synapse at the ipsilateral LGN
Describe the sympathetic pathway for control of pupillary diameter.
3.T1,T2 intermediolateral horn
4.Superior cervical ganglion
5.Dilator muscles
Describe the pathway for parasympathetic control of pupillary size.
2.Pretectal area
3.Edinger-Westphal nucleus
5.Ciliary ganglion
6.Constrictor muscles
Which pretectal area (right or left) does the right retina send fibers to? The left retina?
Each eye sends fibers to both the ipsilateral and contralateral pretectal areas.
What part of the visual field is perceived by the left nasal retina? By the left temporal retina?
*left nasal retina: left temporal field
*left temporal retina: right nasal field
Do lesions that occur behind the optic chiasm produce ipsilateral or contralateral deficits? Or deficits on both sides?
Which portion of the optic radiations carry fibers that synapse at the lingula?
Those fibers found in Meyer's Loop - the most lateral portion of the optic radiations.
What structure connects the LGN and the superior colliculus?
The brachium
Where might a lesion be that produces upper right quadrantanopsia?
In the left Meyer's loop or left lingula.
What deficits would be produced by a lesion in the cuneus?
Contralateral lower field deficits.
Describe the deficit caused with a lesion to the fibers connecting the left retina to the right and left pretectal areas.
*no direct or consensual constriction when left eye is exposed to light
*consensual constriction when light is shown in right eye
What are the 4 symptoms of Horner's Syndrome? What causes this syndrome?
1.Miosis, ptosis, anhidrosis, flushing
2.Damage to sympathetic innervation of head and neck
Describe the primary sign of Argyle-Robertson syndrome.
The pupil is able to constrict during accomodation, but does not exhibit light reflexes.
What area in the brain controls horizontal eye movements? Does this area receive fibers from the ipsilateral or conttralateral frontal eye field.
*paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF)
*receives fibers from the contralateral frontal eye field
Which cranial nerve nuclei must the PPRF coordinate to produce cooperative bilateral horizontal eye movements?
Visuospatial integration takes place in the MT area in the parietal cortex. Through what structure does information pass to get from the retina to the MT area?
Superior colliculus (and pulvinar)
Visuospatial integration takes place in the MT area in the parietal cortex. Through what structure does information pass to get from the retina to the MT area?
Superior colliculus (and pulvinar)
The LGN is a part of what larger brain cerebral structure?
What is a scotoma?
A defect in the perceived visual field
Where are the cell bodies of neurons whose axons run in the left optic tract?
In the left temporal retina and right nasal retina (ganglion layers).