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33 Cards in this Set

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The diff causes and pace of urbanisation in diff parts of the world

Medcs greater urban population; ledcs (80%> 40%)

Diff can be explained by industry ie. One city orientated jobs&other agriculture

Ledcs going through rapidly inc. Urbanization

Urbanization inc population % in cities and towns

Rural:urban migration= movement from rural to urban areas

Push factor

A negative aspect that encourages people to leave their current area of residence to move to another

Natural disasters: drought: 2010 sahel

Famine: darfur, sudan

Civil walls: daefur sudan 2003

Poor standard living& education- kenya

Unemployment due to new technology; zambia, bangladesh

Pull factor

A positive aspect that encourages people to move to a new area of residence

Good quality housing; eg. Rocinha

Well paid jobs: volkswagon sao paulo

Good level of education and medical care; free secondary education within large cities.

Different functional parts of a settlement

CBD: shops, offices and major buildings/ high density grid iron road pattern/ modern lux flats and few georgian housing (100-200y/o) eg. Lpool

The inner city; high density housing, small factories/roads lead into cbd in radial pattern/ victorian terraced housing; mainly rented (100-150 y/o) eg everton

The suburbs; mainly medium density housing, wider roads&parks/medium density roads with cul de sacs/ semi detached houses with front and back garden (70 y/o) eg. Allerton

Rural urban fringe; low density housing, many gardens &farmland/low density roads-cul de sacs./ 1-50 y/o semi detached houses eg. Halewood

Housing-the attempts to satisfy the increased housing needs of the population in diff parts of the city

Uk pop growing due to immigration and +life expectancies and is set to reaxh > 70 mill by 2033 (currently > 62 mill)

uk government planning to build 240, 000 new houses until 2016 to supply growing demand.

Advantages of using brownfield sites

Planning permission more easily secured

•less derelict sites in city

•utilities provided for

•Closer to exsisting facilities

•cuts commuting

Advantages of using greenfield sites

•no need to clear/demolish old buildings

•no restrictions for size from exsisting roads

•countryside may be appealing

• More space for gardens

•land can be cheaper

Impact of government strategies of 1990s on inner city-what they did UDC

UDC has subgroup MDC-established 1980 to regenerate selection liverpool south docks

¤regenerated albert docks

¤filled in kings dock to build echo arena ¤grants issued small businesses in area (brunswick business park)

¤transformation of industrial wasteland into garden festival 1984

¤promotion community initiatives eg. Grants toxteth youth centre

Impact of gov strategies 1990s on inner city- successes UDC

Success evident through £1bill investment into regeneration hectares of land. 4000 new properties built. 2000 new jobs created. 20km new road.

Impact of gov strategies 1990s on inner city; failures UDC

¤<£1 private investment attracted for every £1 spent

¤business forcibly purchased-300 job losses to make room for regeneration

¤garden festival 1984 unsuccessful: derelict land

City Challenge- what they did

¤liverpool CC bidding £35 mill grant as part as competition with other local authorities.

¤main goal: achieve partnership between government, private sector and local community to help inner city

City Challenge: successes

¤restored london road shopping centre eg. Tj hughes

¤grant to roy castle centre for lung cancer

¤ grant for LIPA

¤new bus terminal (partnership national express)

¤nationally improved ~40, 000 houses&created ~3000 new businesses and ~created 53, 000 jobs

City challenge- failures

¤money ran out in 5yrs leaving insufficient time for schemes to be completed

¤ no financial help for areas 1m from CC boundary

¤ money divided equally between authorities irrespective of need

Traffic-impact of increased use of road transport on environment

¤rising cost petrol

¤costs to build and maintain roads

¤land used to build roads

¤air pollution-carbon&nitrous oxides

¤rush hours-road accidents

¤respiratory diseases eg. Athsma

Solutions to help damage of traffic

¤cycle lanes

¤bike hire schemes

¤upgrading west coast rail line

¤Bus lanes


¤Hybrid cars

¤cleaner petrol

¤new mersey crossing


¤Congestion charge-london est.2003

¤Park &ride schemes

¤new toll roads

Revitalising image of the CBD by improving physical environment

Traffic congestion - ~implemation bus lanes e.g dale street &1 way systems e.g castle street to stem traffic. /Inner CBD pedestrianized/ congestion charge.

Lack of parking spaces- 10000 more car spaces e.g Q park

Derelict buildings- offices converted to lux buildings e.g the albany

Unused/derelict land- new offices developed e.g west tower&new flats& apartments built

Lack of public open space: new squares&parks developed e.g chavasse park

Litter, crime&vandalism- special teams graffiti cleaners, gold zones cleaned twice as often e.g bold streeT/ CCTV installed, alley gates.

Poor public transport- new bus terminals created e.g paradise street/ lime street station renovated.

Poor quality shops&facilities- grants for refurbishments issued (matthew street)

Cultural mix-factors causing ethnic segregation within urban areas

Ethnic groups: groups which posess contrasting cultures and nationalities.

¤ china town, somali settlement toxteth.

(more affluent white residents move to suburbs, causing more segregation "white flight")

¤immigrants feel more secure with fellow countrymen

¤freedom of worship

¤economic security

¤language- causes more segregation due to immigrants being unwilling to learn

Strategies aimed at the supporting of the multicultural nature of many urban areas

Many of the related events are supported with grants eg africa OYE festival at sefton park

¤access courses available for migrants learning english (Lila)

¤extra learning support migrant children eg st hughes wavertree

¤beauraus and advice centres eg polish advice centre

Charecteristics of squatter settlements

Physical charecteristics- buildings built into hillsides to maximise use of space

¤high density communities-little or no roads

¤occasional medium rise building swamped with thousands of homemade shacks-made of scrap woof and corrugated iron

¤water butts common

Effects on the lives of people in squatter settlements (rochina)

Hazards- ¤fire& landslides- towns built to close or on cliffs or valleys with no foundation. -overhead electric wires- fire spreads easy.

Health- contaminated water sources, chlorelra or typhoid- quarantines impossible

Crime rate- high- pickpocket and thieves, drug cartels- police force bribed

Housing-poor- buildings made of scrap-built close together-no amenities

Education-poor- less than 1% achieve secondary education-low no. Schools and households.

Services- poor- no running water, some electricticy- some businesses, banks& 1 newly opened medical clinic treats sick-high demand.

Transport- limited- dense environments- residents cant afford or need a car-buses through settlement.

Sanitation- bad- sewage runs through open drains- close contact with pedestrians- disease.









Attempts by inhabitants themselves to improve squatter settlements, self help schemes and favela bairro

¤Poor quality houses- replacing of old wooden houses with brick and tile

-introduction of water pipes&electricity

¤hazards- wood removed from building to reduce fires

-emergency fire services eg rambo de rocina

¤disease- £2mill invested into improvint sewage systems reducing typhoid-cleaner lagoon lagoa.

¤education- members of community volunteer to share skills in school 'amigos de escuela'

-new schools built eg universidade estacio de sa.

¤health care- PAC funded construction of CIAS-24/7 health care unit.

¤crime- favela bairro project-offered oppurtunities to favella dwellers to get jobs in labour market e.g cleaner

¤unemployment- jobs created in informal sector e.g laundry

¤poor leisure- new "sports complex rocina opened as part of PAC

¤image- favela tours for wealthy

Effects of rapid urbanization and industrialisation in India

¤Fatal accidents- rapid industrialisation-union carbide pesticide factory Bhopal killed 5, 500 & 50000 blinded/disabled.

¤water pollution- ganges stricken with domestic pollution and cremation.

¤rapid urbanization (mumbai)

-10000tonne waste/yr produced by conztruction industry

-traffic inc. By 10%/yr

-many polluting industries

-> 80% energy produced by coal

¤waste disposal (mumai)

-deonar recieves 1mill ton waste/yr

-urban sprawl-people settle in squalor

'Unoficial slums do not recieve waste collection

-23000 tns electronic waste/yr

Difficulties of disposal of waste, much of which is toxic (mumbai)

¤population doubled to 18 mill in past 30 yrs

¤3 rapidly filllng landfill sites-far away from city

¤waste removed by kabidawallas

¤wet waste composted for fertilizer

¤biomed waste at deonar from 1200 hospitals

¤biomed waste create dioxins

¤recycle plant @navi mumbai recycles 30 tns/day

Effects and management of air and water pollution (mumbaii)


¤new technology introduced to reduce emissions

¤national solar mission issues grants for inc. Use of solar power

¤proposed carbon tax introduced to reduce usage of coal

¤methane realeased by deonar used to generate energy

¤catalytic converters in vehicles reduce pollutant fumes

¤investment into public transport propised to reduce congestion and pollution

¤congeztion charge proposed


Ganga action plan created

¤$1.5 bill is lent to indian govntment. To clean ganges

Charecteristics of a sustainable city& including local people in decision making process

Interactive locals - involve people in putting ideas forward so they can assume independance.

¤result: self sustaining environment that cares for people and buildings within.

¤made possible by opinion surveys .


¤environment not damaged

¤sound economic base

¤recourses allocated fairly

¤jobs secure

¤strong sense security

Sustainable urban living: Eldonian village

¤tate&lyle closed 1981

¤Provided enough space for eldonian village- tight knit community with affordable homes- public have a say in public matters.

¤145 new homes designed with garden layout specifix to requirements of person moving in.

¤150 social rent houses added 1994

97% satisfied with home, 93% with area.

Sustainablity of eldonian village


¤brown field sites used

¤canal restored for wildlife e.g geese

¤interdependantly organized recycle system


¤houses&businesses self sustaining from revenue generated.


¤community involvement

¤board of volunteers from community makez management decisions.

¤crime- speed bumps and neighbourhood watch.


¤site built ~1km from city centre

¤homes fulfil modern energy efficiancy requirements

¤plans drawn over new powerplants

The importance of conserving historical and natural environment

Historic environment

Liverpool world heritage site- the albert dock.

¤buildings lay derelict until 1980 renovation (mdc)

¤contaminated mud pumped and reinstated water

¤docks include octupi

¤top floor are now desirable aptments.

Liver now privately owned&renovated.

Picton library recieved 50 mill pound investnent.

Natural environment:

¤development on brownfield sites encouraged

¤restrictions on green belts

¤urban sprawl minimised

The use of brownfield sites

Brownfield sites adventageous:

¤reduces communting and traffic

¤prevents urban sprawl

¤contaminated buildings removed

¤green space left untouched

¤land cheap to purchase

¤accesible labour pool

¤planning permission more easily obtanible

Green field sites:

¤new sites do not need clearint

¤cheaper to prepare

¤Pleasant countryside environment appealing

Provision of adequate open spaces-

Open spaces:

¤open spaces in form of parks (sefton) playing fields (wyndcote) gardens (devonfield) allotments (wavertree)

¤liverpool 2nd most listed parks (7) than any city in england (london 1) .

¤sefton and stanley multi million pound renovations- victorian conditions

¤sefton green flag status

¤africa oye- special events

Reducing and safetly disposing of waste (liverpool)

¤30mill tns domestic waste/yr UK

¤40% household waste recycled in 2010.


¤landfill (73% waste here) shortage of available sites

¤incineration (9%) produces toxic fumes

¤ all households in lpool blue bin collected every 2 wks.

¤ compost bins given free of charge

¤ supermarkets give bags 4 life and charge for plastic Bags

¤alotments regenerated to reduce air miles and encourage compostinf and sustainablility

¤bulky bobs recycles furniture

Reducing the use of fossil fuels

¤reducing amount of vehicles to lessen fuel demand

¤ improving technology to reduce amount fuel needed to produce sufficient energy

¤using alternative energy sources in combo engines

¤using biofuel for mains electricity

¤ raisinf awareness

Provision of an efficient public transport system (London)

Volume of cars is a problem for the city and is a barrier to sustAinablility- congesition chsrge- to create long term solution MASS investment into public transport. Bus improvements:

¤scrapping of bendy buses for safety

¤increased frequency of buses to improve service

¤ buses have CCTV installed

¤shelters added to more stops

¤extended bus lanes