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105 Cards in this Set

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Rectus femoris

1. Vastus lateralis


2. Vastus intermedius


3. Vastus medialis

1. Semitendinosus


2. Biceps femoris, long head


3. Semimembranosus


4. Biceps femoris, short head

Popliteus

Gastrocnemius

What is the ROM and end feels for knee flexion and extension?

Flexion 0-135 soft or firm


Extension 0 firm

The knee joint is the largest joint in the body, and it is classified as a ____ ____ joint.

Synovial, hinge


However, it is not a true hinge because it has a rotational component.

The last motion that occurs during knee extension is called what?

Screw home mechanism

What type of relationship do the femur and tibia have in a closed chain action?

Convex on concave

What is open-packed position for the knee? Close-packed? What is the capsular pattern?

OP: 25* flexion


CP: full ext. with ER of tibia


CP: flexion > extension

Articulation between thigh bone and small bone on top of knee

Patellofemoral

What are the main functions of the patella?

Increase mechanical advantage of quadriceps


Protect knee joint

Angle between the quadriceps and the patellar tendon

Q angle: normal range is 13-19*


Many knee and patellar problems are associated with abnormal Q angles.

What is open-packed position for the patellofemoral joint?

Knee fully extended

Large projection at the proximal end of the tibia on the anterior surface

Tibial tuberosity

The ACL and PCL are named for their attachment on the ____.

Tibia

1. Anterior cruciate ligament


2. Lateral collateral ligament


3. Medial collateral ligament


4. Medial meniscus


5. Posterior cruciate ligament

The ____ ligaments provide stability in the sagittal plane while the ____ ligaments provide stability in the frontal plane.

Cruciate, collateral

The ACL tightens during ____, and the PCL tightens during ____.

Extension, flexion


The ACL is injured much more frequently than the PCL.

Which collateral ligament is attached to a meniscus?

Medial collateral ligament


This contributes to frequent tearing of the medial meniscus.

A blow to the lateral side of the knee is a ____ force while one to the medial side is a ____ force.

Valgus, varus

What are two functions of the menisci?

Absorb shock


Deepen tibial surface

Which nerves and blood vessels run through the popliteal space?

Tibial and common fibula (nerve)


Popliteal artery and vein

From anterior to posterior, the sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus make up the ____ ____.

Pes anserine

When a person is knock-kneed (____ ____), the weight of the body is centered to the ____ side of the knee joint and the ____ is stretched.

Genu valgum, lateral, MCL

When a person is bow-legged (____ ____), the weight of the body is centered to the ____ side of the knee joint and the ____ is stretched.

Genu varus, medial, LCL

Which muscles wrap around the sides of the femur?

Vastus lateralis and medialis

Which part of the hamstring group functions only at the knee?

Short head of biceps femoris

Which muscle creates the rotational pull needed to unlock the knee as it begins flexion?

Popliteus

Which muscles come together to form the Achilles tendon?

Gastrocnemius and soleus

Which muscle makes it possible for a person to extend the knee without using the quads?

Gastrocnemius

Which muscles do not have a prime mover function at the knee but do help to stabilize the joint?

Gracilis


Sartorius


Tensor fascia lata

The ____ nerve innervates the quads, and the ____ nerve innervates the hamstrings.

Femoral, sciatic

Coxa varus is seen in conjunction with ____ ____, and coxa valgus is seen with ____ ____.

Genu valgus, genu varus

Jumper's knee; results from overuse stress or sudden impact overload

Patellar tendonitis

Common overuse injury among growing adolescents; inflammation of the growth plate on the tibial tuberosity

Osgood-Schlatter disease

Softening and degeneration of cartilage on back of patella

Chondromalacia patella

Housemaid's knee; occurs when there is constant pressure between skin and patella

Prepatellar bursitis

The terrible triad, caused by a single blow to the knee, involves tears to which structures?

ACL, MCL, medial meniscus

Problem of the LE involving increased anteversion of the femoral head; associated with genu valgus, increased tibial torsion, and flat feet

Miserable malalignment syndrome

1. Plantaris


2. Soleus

Tibialis posterior

Flexor hallucis longus

Flexor digitorum longus

Tibialis anterior

Extensor hallucis longus

Extensor digitorum longus

Fibularis longus

1. Fibularis brevis


2. Fibularis tertius

1. Calcaneus


2. Talus

1. Navicular


2. Cuboid


3. Third cuneiform


4. Second cuneiform


5. First cuneiform

1. Metatarsal


2. Proximal phalanx


3. Middle phalanx


4. Distal phalanx

Medial superior part of the calcaneus that projects out to support the talus

Sustentaculum tali

Which metatarsals bear the most weight?

First and fifth

In the gait cycle, the ____ is the first part of the foot that makes contact with the ground.

Hindfoot

What are three main functions of the ankle joint and foot?

Act as shock absorber


Adapt to level of ground


Provide stable BOS

Which motions do the ankle and foot allow?

Plantar flexion/dorsiflexion - saggital plane


Inversion/eversion - frontal plane


Abduction/adduction - transverse plane

Inversion of the foot is accompanied by ____, and eversion by ____.

Adduction, abduction

Supination of the foot is a combination of what movements?

Plantar flexion, inversion, adduction

Pronation of the foot is a combination of what movements?

Dorsiflexion, eversion, abduction

Which plane joint helps dissipate torsional stresses applied at the ankle joint?

Superior tibiofibular

Which joint of the lower leg is a syndemosis?

Inferior tibiofibular


This joint determines overall strength of the ankle joint.

What is the name of the true ankle joint and how is it classified?

Talocrural or talotibial


Uniaxial hinge

What is normal ROM and end feels for the following ankle movements?


Dorsiflexion/plantar flexion


Inversion/eversion

Dorsiflexion 0-20 firm


Plantar flexion 0-50 firm or hard


Inversion 0-35 firm


Eversion 0-15 firm or hard


The ____ talus glides posteriorly on the ____ tibia during dorsiflexion.

Convex, concave

Subtalar joint

Plantar/dorsiflexion occur primarily at the ____ joint. Inversion/eversion occur at the subtalar and ____ joints.

Talocrural, transverse tarsal

The first MTP joint allows about 90* of ____. This is important during which phase of walking?

Hyperextension, toe-off phase

What are the four parts of the deltoid ligament?

Tibionavicular


Tibiocalcaneal


Posterior tibiotalar


Anterior tibiotalar

What are the three parts of the lateral ligament?

Anterior talofibular


Calcaneofibular


Posterior talofibular

Which bones form the medial longitudinal arch?

Calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuneiforms, 1-3 metatarsals

Which bone is the keystone of the medial longitudinal arch?

Talus

Which bones form the lateral longitudinal arch?

Calcaneus, cuboid, 4-5 metatarsals

Which bones form the transverse arch?

Cuneiforms, cuboid

Which ligament supports the medial side of the longitudinal arch?

Spring ligament

Which ligament is the primary support of the lateral longitudinal arch?

Long plantar ligament

Which leg muscles are in the superficial posterior group?

Gastrocnemius


Soleus


Plantaris

Which leg muscles are in the deep posterior group?

Tibialis posterior


Flexor hallucis longus


Flexor digitorum longus

Which leg muscles are in the anterior group?

Tibialis anterior


Extensor hallucis longus


Extensor digitorum longus

Which leg muscles are in the lateral group?

Fibularis longus


Fibularis brevis


Fibularis tertius

What is the deepest muscle in the calf of the leg?

Tibialis posterior

Which muscles form the stirrup of the foot?

Fibularis longus


Tibialis anterior

What is the point of reference for abduction/adduction of the toes?

Second toe

The tibial nerve innervates muscles in which area?

Posterior leg, plantar surface of foot

The superficial fibular nerve innervates muscles in which area?

Lateral side of leg

The deep fibular nerve innervates muscles in which area?

Anterior leg

What causes the pain of a shin splint?

Inflammation of the periosteum

Equinus foot


Hindfoot is fixed in plantar flexion.

Loss of the medial longitudinal arch; flat foot

Pes planus

Hallux valgus

Hammer toe

Pathology caused by abnormal pressure on the plantar digital nerves; results in pain and numbness in the toe area

Morton's neuroma

Which structure is frequently injured in ankle sprains?

Lateral ligament

Which bone is most commonly involved in an ankle fracture?

Lateral malleolus

What would cause a person to lose the ability to plantar flex the ankle?

Ruptured Achilles tendon

This process relieves pain at the subtalar joint, but inversion and eversion at the ankle are lost.

Triple arthrodesis

Extension of the knee when WB is a ____ chain activity. The ____ moves on the ____.

Closed, femur, tibia

During extension of the knee while WB, what combination of movements does the femur demonstrate?

Rolling


Posterior gliding


Medial spinning - during last 20*

What is one common way the PCL is injured?

In a car accident; the so-called "dashboard injury"


The most frequent MOI is a direct blow to the anterior aspect of the proximal tibia on a flexed knee with the ankle in plantarflexion.

Which muscles form the borders of the popliteal space?

What are some things that might cause patellofemoral pain syndrome?

Increased Q angle


Patella alta


Quad weakness/tightness


ER weakness - gluteus medius


Excessive foot pronation

In calcaneal ____, the distal segment is angled away from midline.

Valgus

Used to describe motion around an obliquely oriented axis that passes through all three planes

Triplanar

What is open-packed position for the talocrural joint? Close-packed? What is the capsular pattern?

OP: 10* PF, midway between inv/ev


CP: max DF


CP: PF > DF

What is open-packed position for the subtalar joint? Close-packed?

OP: midway between all motions


CP: supination