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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the four types of communication?
Intrapersonal (with yourself)
Interpersonal (with another person)
Group (with several people)
Mass (with millions)
What are the stages of the basic (Shannon-Weaver) communication model?
1. Sender has a thought
2. Sender encodes the message
3. Sender sends the message
4. Receiver decodes it.
5. Receiver internalizes it.
What componenets affect the basic communication model and how?
Feedback (communication loop), noise (keeps the receiver from getting the message), filters (keeps receiver from understanding the message), effects (the point of the comm.), amplification (something gains importance due to it's mass audience)
What are the three types of noise called and what do they represent?
Semantic Noise: due to speech
Channel Noise: transmission issues (static)
Environmental noise: around the receiver
What are the three types of filters and what do they represent?
Informational: in another language
Physical: A bodily problem
Psychological: set of beliefs
What are the four questions of the narrative model of communication?
1. Who says what?
2. In what channel?
3. To whom?
4. With what effect?
What metaphor does the concentric communication model use?
Communication travels like the ripples of a pond.
Who are the players in the mass communication process?
communicators, gatekeepers, regulators
What is the difference between hot and cool media?
Hot media require more consumer involvement than cool media.
Where would the Entertainment-Information model place newspapers?
On the informative side.
Why is the content-distribution model not so relevent anymore?
Because more companies are practicing vertical integration and creating/distributing their own content.
What are the three stages of the maturation model?
Innovation, entrepreneurial, stability
What is joint ownership?
Where companies share ownership of other companies
What are some positive effects of media conglomeration?
Provides economies of scale, allows companies to weather through unprofitable periods, allows synergy to occur.
What are some negative effects of media conglomeration?
Forces companies to focus on profit rather than quality, very few media voices
What is demassification?
Where media markets shift from mass to niche audiences.
How do media outlets make money?
advertising, private donations, subscriptions, audience donations, government subsidies, renting space, etc.
What are the five periods in the history of U.S. Journalism?
Colonial, Partisan, Penny Press, Yellow Journalism, Contemporary
What is sedition?
Speaking out against the government.
What is the absolute defense against libel?
What are the legacies of the colonial period?
-Journalists are determined to be free from gov't censorship
-news media are economic enterprises
-determined to seek truth
-mold government policy
What are the legacies of the partisan period?
-gov't wasn't involved in press
-news media are a forum for discussion and comment on public issues
-gov't crackdowns on free press will affect their power
What made "The Sun" possible?
Urbanization, Immigration, Industrialization, Literacy
What are the many legacies of the penny press era?
Inverted pyramid, objective reporting, mass interest and affordability, commitment to social improvement, providing information quickly
What was yellow journalism?
Sensationalistic and focused on human interest
What is the "news hole"?
The amount of time or space left for the news after advertising is placed.
What is news flow?
Number of newsworthy stories in a given day.
What is the primary purpose of journalism?
To provide citizens with the information they need to be self-governing.
What is the journalists role in today's media-saturated environment?
To go beyond the truth and make meaning of what is said and occurs.
What does verification require?
1. Never add anything that wasn't there
2. Never deceive the audience
3. Be transparent as possible about methods
4. Rely on your own reporting
5. Exercise humility
When was freedom of speech applied to the federal government? All state governments?
1791 and 1925
What is prior restraint?
When an article of news is withheld before it can be printed or aired.
What are "fighting words"?
Words that intend to inflict injury or cause a breach of the peace.
What is the point of the incitement standard?
To protect those who did not speak about or plan to stage a lawless event.
What is libel?
When factual information is used to defame a person/corporation/gov't's reputation.
What is not protected by the first amendment?
What are "sunshine laws"?
Open meeting laws where the public is invited to come.
What two court cases proved the difficulty of enforcing prior restraint?
Near vs. Minnesota and New York Times vs. US (Pentagon Papers)
What important case of libel was overturned by the supreme court?
NYT vs. Sullivan
What is the point of the "fair comment" doctrine?
Reviewers or any article/column in the opinion sections is free from accusations fo libel.
What are sheild laws?
Laws that protect journalists from having to reveal confidential sources.
What does fair use mean?
A way to use a product without infringing upon its copyright.