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6 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Commercial Revolution

Rise of long distance trade and merchants.

Ironworking- diffusion or independent invention?

Bantu expansion

From 5500 to 0

Old view: Reached South Africa in 1600s, at the same time as Europeans didSpread through migrationBantus displaced Khoisan and PygmiesDepended on technological superiority with iron and farming

New view: Reached South Africa by at least 100 CE, long before EuropeansSpread through migration and diffusion Bantus displaced or assimilated Khoisan and PygmiesFirst stages pre-dated iron

Cattle spread downwards from horn of africa starting 9000

Christian Jurgensen Thomsen

Danish archaeologist, 1788-1865

Three Age system:

Stone age - 2.5 mil years ago

Bronze age - 3300 bc

Iron age - 2200-1500 yrs ago

Iron smelting

Origin: middle east 2500-1500

African smelting - 900-600 or even earlier

Trans Saharan Trade Route

Last Wet Sahara Phase, 7000-3000 BCE

1500-500 BCE: Garamantes Berbers establish control over Trans-Saharan trade with Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans

200-300 CE: The Camel is introduced to the Sahara, volume of trade increases enormously

Bantu culture

Round houses

Cattle complex

Iron working