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6 Cards in this Set

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Commercial Revolution

Rise of long distance trade and merchants.


Ironworking- diffusion or independent invention?

Bantu expansion

From 5500 to 0


Old view: Reached South Africa in 1600s, at the same time as Europeans didSpread through migrationBantus displaced Khoisan and PygmiesDepended on technological superiority with iron and farming




New view: Reached South Africa by at least 100 CE, long before EuropeansSpread through migration and diffusion Bantus displaced or assimilated Khoisan and PygmiesFirst stages pre-dated iron




Cattle spread downwards from horn of africa starting 9000

Christian Jurgensen Thomsen

Danish archaeologist, 1788-1865


Three Age system:


Stone age - 2.5 mil years ago


Bronze age - 3300 bc


Iron age - 2200-1500 yrs ago

Iron smelting

Origin: middle east 2500-1500


African smelting - 900-600 or even earlier



Trans Saharan Trade Route

Last Wet Sahara Phase, 7000-3000 BCE



1500-500 BCE: Garamantes Berbers establish control over Trans-Saharan trade with Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans




200-300 CE: The Camel is introduced to the Sahara, volume of trade increases enormously

Bantu culture

Round houses


Cattle complex


Iron working


Agriculture