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231 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who is Wilhelm Wundt?
Set up the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany.
What did Structuralists believe?
That consciousness was made up of basic elements that were combined in different ways to produce different perceptions.
What is introspection?
Involves reporting on one's own conscious thoughts and feelings.
Who is Edward Titchener?
He set up the first psychology lab in the U.S.
What did Functionalists believe?
That consciousness, and behavior in general, helped people and animals adjust to their environment.
Focus on understanding how physiological and biochemical processes might produce psychological phenomena.
Biological Approach
Thoughts, feelings, and behaviors stem from the interaction of innate drives and society's restrictions on the expression of those drives.
Psychodynamic approach.
Who said the most important urges are the sexual and aggressive ones?
Sigmund Freud
Explain behavior primarily in terms of learned responses to predictable patterns of environmental stimuli.
Behaviorist approach.
Who studied classical conditioning?
Who studied operant conditioning?
The "cause" is represented by what?
Independent variable.
The "effect" represents what?
Dependent variable.
What is a blind study?
If subjects do not know whether they're receiving the drug or the placebo.
Who does not know about the placebo in a double-blind study?
The subjects and the experimenters.
Involves assessing the relationship between two variables.
Correlational studies.
Means that high scores on one variable tend to be paired with high scores on the other variable.
Positive relationship.
Means that high scores on one variable tend to be paired with low scores on the other variable.
Negative relationship.
Describes the strength of a relationship.
Correlation coefficient.
Involve in-depth analysis of only one person.
Case Studies.
Studied as it occurs in real-life settings.
Naturalist observation.
Agreement among observers is a measure of what?
Inter-judge reliability.
Concerned with how communication happens and how behavior is influenced by it.
Behavioral neuroscience.
Detect heat, or light, or touch and then pass information about those stimuli on to the brain.
Sense receptors.
Pathways for communication of sense receptors.
Take in information from body tissues and sense organs, and transmit it to the spinal cord and brain.
Sensory Neurons
Send information in the opposite direction.
Motor Neurons.
Communicate with other neurons.
Interneurons (associative neurons)
Short, bushy fibers that take information in from outside the cell.
Long fibers that pass info. along to other nerve cells, to glands, or to muscles.
A fatty tissue that surrounds the axon and accelerates tranmission of info.
Myelin sheath.
Electrically charged atoms.
Maintained because the axon's membrane won't let positive ions into the cell unless the cell receives a signal from the dendrites.
Resting potential
The neuron pumps out the sodium ions and can then fire again.
Refractory Period
Junction where the end of one neuron meets the beginning of another.
Helps control arousal and sleep.
Drugs that mimic a particular neurotransmitter or make more of it available by blocking its reuptake.
Drugs that block.
Includes the sensory and motor neurons.
Peripheral nervous system.
System that carries info. from muscles, sense organs, and skin to the central nervous system and messages from the system to the skeletal muscles.
Somatic nervous system
Regulates the body's internal environment.
Autonomic nervous system
Prepares you for action
Symphathetic nervous system.
Deactivates the systems mobilized.
Parasympathetic nervous system.
Controls breathing and heartbeat.
Receives info. about touch, taste, sight, and hearing
Controls arousal and sleep
Reticular formation
Coordination of voluntary movement
Processes memory
Influences fear and anger
Influences hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior
Influences the release of hormones from other glands
Pituitary gland
Motor, cognitive, and sensory processes.
Cerebral cortex
Play a part in coordinating movement and in higher level thinking
Frontal lobes
Where is the Broca's area and what does it affect?
Frontal lobe, speech speed.
Where is the Wernicke's area and what does it affect?
Frontal lobe, understanding.
Sensor of touch.
Pariental Lobes
Involved in hearing
Temporal lobes
Areas involved in vision.
Occipital lobes.
Area of psychology that addresses the topic of sensation.
Minimum stimulation needed for a given person to detect a given stimulus.
Absolute threshold.
Smallest difference a person can detect.
Just noticeable difference (difference threshold)
Threshold increases in proportion to the intensity or magnitude of the stimuli.
Weber's Law
Predisposes us to attend to stimuli that matter to us and not attend to stimuli that don't.
Sensory Adaptation
Illustrates that our ideas about reality have to be chosen, organized, and interpreted, not simply detected.
Selective attention
Shows that the mind fills in the gaps in our sensations.
Gestalt psychologists
Require both eyes.
Binocular cues
One cue to distance.
Retinal disparity.
The extent to which the eyes must turn inward to view an object.
Requires only one eye.
Monocular cues.
Fact that parallel lines appear to converge as they get farther away.
Linear perspective.
Refers to the apparent movement of stable objects as we ourselves move.
Motion parallax (relative motion)
Influence judgments of depth.
Texture gradients
Predispositions to perceive one thing and not another.
Perceptual sets
From simple sensory receptors to more complex neural networks.
Bottom-up fashion
From expectations, motives, and contextual cues to raw sensory data.
Top-down fashion.
State of being aware
Predictability stems from their being synchronized with the parts of the day.
Circadian rhythm
Brain waves cycle through a series of ___ stages every ___ minutes or so.
Five, 90
Electrical currents in the brain as shown graphically on an EEG.
Brain waves
The five stages of sleep.
Hypnogogic, sleep spindles, delta waves, slow-wave sleep, and stage 2 repeats
The sleeper appears calm and relaxed despite a great deal of cortical activity.
Paradoxical sleep.
Recurring difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep.
Sudden uncrontrollable attacks of sleep during waking hours
Stop breathing intermittently during sleep
Sleep apnea
The images that actually appear to the dreamer.
Manifest content of a dream.
A "forbidden" sexual or aggressive wish that the dreamer would repress if awake.
Latent content.
Brain's neurons fire randomly during sleep in this theory.
Activation-sythesis theory.
Claim that dreams are a way to consolidate information.
Heightened state of motivation
A split in consciousness
Produce a state of consciousness that is different from "normal" consciousness by mimicking, inhibiting, or stimulating the activity of neurotransmitters.
Psychoactive drugs.
A relatively enduring change in behavior that is the product of experience.
Which group first began studying learning and wanted to focus only on observable events
Expectations and the ability to represent events mentally.
Cognitive factors
Occurs when the repeated presentation of a single stimulus produces an enduring change in behavior.
Non-associative learning
Occurs when the repeated or long-lasting presentation of an intense stimulus increases the response to a weaker stimulus.
Involves the learning of a connection either between two stimuli or between a response and a stimulus.
Associative learning
Produces changes in responding by pairing two stimuli together.
Classical conditioning (Pavlovian conditioning)
Involves learning an association between a stimulus and a response that follows it.
Operant conditioning.
Always involves a decrease in the target behavior.
Rules for determining when reinforcement will be given.
We can learn operant behaviors indirectly.
Observational learning
Ability to learn vicariously
Can be thought of as the mental activities involved in solving problems.
Mental rules of thumbs
You're asking yourself how similar or "representative" one event is of a class of events.
Representativeness heuristic.
Involves judging the likelihood that an event will happen in terms of how readily you can bring an instance of it to mind.
Availability Heuristic.
Refers to people's tendency to look for info. that will support their beliefs.
Confirmation bias
The inability to see new uses for familiar objects.
Functional fixedness.
Rules for combining morphemes in meaningful ways.
One-word stage.
Babbling stage
Two-word stage.
Telegraphic speech
Attempted to explain language development in terms of operant conditioning principles.
B.F. Skinner
Claimed that children have a language acquisition device.
Noam Chomsky
A fleeting awareness of whatever the senses have detected.
Sensory Memory
The info. that can be kept in the mind long enough to solve problems.
Short-term memory (working memory)
Deliberate, though sometimes automatic and unconscious, methods used for getting info. into long-term memory.
Mnemonic strategies.
About how well you solve problems.
First to develop an intelligence test.
Alfred Binet.
Mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100.
Intelligence quotient.
He labeled general intelligence "g".
Charles Spearman
What is nature vs. nurture?
"Nature" refers to our biological, genetic heritage, whereas "nurture" refers to environmental effects on our development.
The psychological process that energizes and directs behavior.
Often used to illustrate how these factors can impact the occurrence and expression of a motive.
The part of the brain that seems to be most important for monitoring hunger-related signals.
Responsible for stopping hunger.
Ventromedial Hypothalamus
Responsible for increasing hunger.
Lateral hypothalamus
The weight our own body works to maintain.
Set point
An increase or decrease in heart rate.
Physiological arousal.
Perceiving a stimulus that has relevance to one's well-being will generate arousal and a subjective emotional experience simultaneously.
Cannon-Bard theory
The perception of a stimulus causes arousal first, which then causes you to feel an emotion.
James-Lange theory
The activity of facial muscles tells us whether we're happy or not.
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Says that the quality of an emotional experience depends on how arousal is labeled.
Stanley Schacter's Two Factor theory
Deals with systematic, predictable changes in thinking and behavior over the lifespan.
Developmental pscychology
Involve comparing people of different ages at the same point in time.
Cross-sectional studies
Means that it cannot be determined whether differences across age groups are due to changes in age itself, or to differences in the periods of time.
Involve tracking the behavior of a single cohort over long period of time.
Longitudinal studies
In which people of different ages are followed over a long period of time.
Cross-Sequential study
Describes how children's thinking changes as they get older.
Piaget's theory
Children think only in terms of what they can sense and what they can do.
Sensorimotor stage
The understanding that objects continue to exist even when their presence can't be sensed.
Object Permanence
Don't use logical reasoning, but instead reason intuitively.
Pre-operational stage.
The understanding that some quantitative aspects of objects don't change just because the object's appearance has been transformed in some way.
They have trouble seeing things from other people's perspectives.
Think logically but only about things that are "concrete"
Concrete operational stage
Thinking, or the logic of science, can think abstractly.
Formal Operational
A child understands the world in one particular way and then sees something happen that can't fit into that understanding.
Involves understanding events in terms of your current scheme.
Relies heavily on the idea that tension is necessary for change.
Erikson's theory of psycho-social development
Sharing wisdom and experience with other people.
Taking care of only their own deteriorating physcial and mental abilities.
Share the common beliefs that people's behavior is motivated largely by unconscious needs.
Psychoanalytic theories
Describes people as having two fundamental needs or motives: sex and aggression.
Freud's theory of psychoanalysis
Refers to the biological part of our personality.
Do what feels good and do it now.
The Pleasure Principle
The rational, realistic part of our personality involves learning, problem-solving, and reasoning.
Do what will get our needs met and without getting hurt.
The Reality Principle
The social part of our personality that allows us to get along with other people.
Do what's right, and don't do what's wrong.
The Morality Principle
From the Freudian perspective, these objects are symbolic or metaphorical reminders of things the person wants, but can't allow themselves to have.
Periods of life defined by parts of the body that do the most to make you feel good.
Psychosexual stages
Often used as an example of this approach.
Carl Roger's self theory
How people think about themselves and their relations with the world around them.
How people think, how people behave, and what their environment is like
Reciprocal determinism
Measuring the many, many ways in which people differ, reducing those many ways down to a more manageable subset.
Individual-difference approach
Big Five Personality traits
Openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
Used to identify traits for which scores correlate highly with each other.
Factor analysis
Stage child enters after oral and anal stages.
Phallic stage.
The branch of psychology that deals with psychological disorders.
Abnormal psychology
Unusual feelings of dread, fearfulness, or terror.
Anxiety Disorders
Feel persistent, but are unaware of its source.
Generalized anxiety disorder
Involves unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of terror that have a sudden onset.
Panic Disorder
Characterized by depression, mania, or both.
Mood Disorders
Characterized by feelings of hopelessness, sadness, and discouragement.
Major depressive disorder
Feature the fragmentation of personality.
Dissociative disorders
Unable to remember personally relevant info.
Dissociative amnesia
Travels away from home or work suddenly and unexpectedly, can't recall his or her past.
Dissociative fugue
Multiple personality disorder
Dissociative identity disorder
A disorder involving symptoms of psychosis.
Exhibit delusions of grandeur or persecution.
Paranoid Schizophrenics
Exhibit disorganized speech or behavior, and innappropriate emotional responses.
Disorganized schizophrenics
Exhibit odd motor activity.
Catatonic Schizophrenia
Senselessly repeating back words someone else has just said.
Exhibit symtpoms of any type of schizophrenia, but do not meet the specific criteria for having one of the other forms.
Undifferentiated schizophrenia
The individual has physical symptoms usually associated with some sort of disease or physical disorder.
Somatoform disorders.
Involve impaired motor functioning or impaired sensory functioning that can't be attributed to any neurological problems.
Conversion disorders
Characterized by patterns of behavior or thinking that are clearly and substantially inconsistent with the expectations of one's culture.
Personality disorders.
A person who is extremely suspicious and distrustful.
Paranoid personality.
Tramples on the right of others, is impulsive, and lacks a conscience.
Antisocial personality.
Has trouble maintaining relationships and has a wide fluctuations in both self-image and emotional behaviors.
Borderline personality disorder.
Needs undue admiration and praise.
Narcissistic personality
Focuses on the possibility that unconscious conflicts cause anxiety that is dealt with in a maladaptive way.
Psychoanalytic approach.
Explains abnormal behavior in terms of abnormal patterns of thinking.
Cognitive approach.
The problem behavior itself is the problem.
Learning or behavioral approach.
Problems arise when urges come up against social pressure to squelch them.
Psychoanalytic thinking
Involves having the individual relax as much as possible and say whatever comes to mind.
Free Association
Emphasis is more on what's happening now and what the client wants to change for the future.
Humanistic therapies.
Assume that something going on inside an individual is responsible for abnormal behavior.
Cognitive therapies.
Rely on using principle of classical and operant conditioning to change problem behaviors directly.
Behavioral therapies
Involves conditioning a new response that's incompatible with an old response.
A procedure where anxiety is gradually replaced with relaxation.
Systematic desensitizaiton.
Where a person goes straight into the fear-provoking situation without intermediate steps.
An unpleasant response becomes associated with what would normally be a pleasant activity.
Aversive Conditioning.
Rely on drugs or surgery.
Biological or medical therapies.
Has to do with how the behavior of individuals is influenced by other people.
Social psychology
Refers to how we process info. about other people.
Social cognition.
Deals with types of explanations people generate for others' behavior.
Attribution theory
Explain behavior in terms of factors inside a person.
Dispositional attributions
Explain behavior in terms of factors outside the person.
Situational attributions
Observers tend to attribute others' behavior to dispositions.
Actor-observer difference.
If you behave in a way that's inconsistent with your attributes, it will produce tension.
Cognitive dissonance theory.
About the direct and indirect pressures exerted by others to change someone's attitudes or behaviors.
Social influence.
Asked participants to judge which of three lines on a piece of paper was the same length as the fourth line.
Solomon Asch
Pressure to comply with the norm.
Normative Social Influence.
What other people do simply provides info. about how to behave.
Informational social influence.
Demonstrated that people can be incredibly susceptible to the demands of authority.
Stanley Milgram.
Aggression is always the product of frustration and frustration always leads to aggression according to this.
Frustration-aggression hypothesis.
Our goal in life is to maximize our rewards and minimize our costs according to this.
Social-exchange theory. (Minimax principle)
We're obligated to help people who need our help.
Social responsibility norm.
We're obligated to help those who have helped us.
Reciprocity norm.
Refers to the consistency of people's scores on a test.
Coefficients larger than ___ are generally considered adequate evidence of reliability.
How well does the test correlate with itself?
Internal consistency
Measure of reliability.
Cronbach's alpha
Whether the test looks as though it's measuring what it's supposed to.
Face validity.
Refers to how well scores on the test predict actual behavior.
Predictive validity.
Refers to whether scores on the questionnaire are related in expected ways.
Construct validity.
Most common occuring score.
Allow you to make inferences about populations based on the characteristics of your sample.
Inferential statistics.