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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 4 main purposes of the brain?
1. Communicating internally
2. Initiating and coordinating behavior
3. Regulating growth and internal functions
4. Adapting/transmitting genetic code
What is the nervous system made up of?
Billions of individual neurons
The nervous system connects the CNS with what?
muscles, glands, and sense organs
What are the four parts of a neuron?
1. Cell body
2. Dendrites
3. Axon
4. Myelin
What is the cell body of a neuron?
Contains the nucleus, carries out all the functions that any other cell does
What are the dendrites?
Extensions of the neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
What is the axon?
Extension of the neuron through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands
What is Myelin?
It is a sheath of fatty cells that segmentally encase the axon for insulation
Why is insulation of the axon important?
Vastly quickens the transmission speed of neural impulses
What is the current idea regarding connections and intelligence?
The more connections of axons/terminal means more intelligent
What are the 3 types of neurons?
1. Sensory
2. Interneurons
3. Motor
What are Sensory Neurons?
Neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS
What are Interneurons?
CNS neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
Which neurons do not exist outside the CNS?
What are Motor Neurons?
Carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands
What makes up the CNS?
ONLY the brain and spinal cord!
What is a Reflex?
A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus
Interneurons can make decisions with out what?
Cognition from the brain!
What is the Sodium Pump?
It is an active transport mechanism that moves impulses down the axon by pumping sodium into the cell
The Sodium Pump is what?
What is the stage called where the neuron cannot send another signal?
Refractory period
What is the Refractory Period?
Time during which the neuron can't send another signal
What is the Resting Potential?
Tiny charge between inside, outside of neuron
How is the Resting Potential maintained?
Sodium pump and selectively permeable membrane!
The refractory period causes what to take longer and longer?
Neuron takes longer and longer to send signal to CNS
What is the Action Potential?
Change in potential, primarily because of messages from other neurons
What are the two types of messages causing a AP?
Excitatory and Inhibitory Messages
When a cell loses the negative charge, it becomes what?
When a cell becomes more negatively charged, it becomes what?
What is the Synapse?
Junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite of the receiving neuron
What are Neurotransmitters?
Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons
What stores neurotransmitters?
Synaptic Vesicles!
What are the 4 main Neurotransmitters?
1. Acetylcholine
2. Dopamine
3. Serotonin
4. Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA)
What is Acetylcholine?
A NT that's involved in triggering muscles to contract
What is Dopamine?
A NT that has inhibitory effects which dampen and smooths out neural messages. Used to reward and cover pain
Dopamine is also involved in what?
Heroine and morphine duplicate the effects of what?
What is Serotonin?
A NT that is involved in sleep and dreaming, happiness
What is GABA?
A NT that is involved in regulating anxiety
What are Agonists?
Drugs that mimic the action of NTs
What are Antagonists?
Drugs that block the action of NTs
What are Neuromodulators?
Drugs that increase or decrease effectiveness of other NTs
What is an example of an Agonist?
Nicotine mimics Acetylcholine
What is an example of an Antagonist?
Curare blocks Acetylcholine
What is an example of a Neuromodulator?
What are the two parts of the Nervous systems?
Central and Peripheral!
What are the two main sections of the Peripheral Nervous System?
Somatic and Autonomic
What is the Somatic peripheral nervous system?
Skeletal muscle - voluntary
What are the two sections of Autonomic Peripheral Nervous System?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
Sympathetic prepares the body for what?
Parasympathetic systems do what?
Calm the body down
What is the Brainstem?
The oldest part and central core of the brain.
What is the brainstem responsible for?
Automatic survival functions
What is the Medulla?
It is the base of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing
What is the Thalamus?
It is the brain's sensory switchboard. It directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
What is the Cerebellum?
It is the "litttle brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem which it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
The Hypothalamus controls what?
What gives you your ability of muscle memory and to get into "The Zone"?
the Cerebullum!
What is the Cerebral Cortex?
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres
What is the body's ultimate control and information processing center?
The Cerebral Cortex!
What are Glial Cells?
Cells in the nervous system that are not neurons but that support, nourish and protect neurons
What are the Frontal Lobes involved with?
Involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plants and judgements
Which lobes include the visual areas?
Occipital Lobes
What is the main purpose of the Occipital Lobes?
Visual Areas
Which lobes include the auditory areas?
Temporal Lobes!
What is the main purpose of the Temporal Lobes?
Auditory areas
In the cerebral cortex, from front to back, which order are the motor and sensory cortex?
First is the motor cortex, then the sensory cortex
What is the output cortex?
What is the input cortex?
Which part of the body does the cerebral cortex spend most of it's energy on? Why?
The Face! Because of facial recognition and talking for survival purposes
What two cortexes are located in the Parietal Lobe?
Motor and Sensory Cortexes
What is the Motor Cortex?
It is the lobe at the rear of the frontal lobe that controls voluntary movements
What is the sensory cortex?
It is the area at the front of the parietal lobe that registers and processes body sensations
What is aphasia?
Impairment of language
What causes Aphasia?
Usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or Wernicke's Area
What is Broca's Area?
Area in the frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
What is Wernicke's Area?
Area in left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression
What is Brain Plasticity?
It is the brain's capacity for modification/repair following damage
Who has a better change of rewiring their brain after severe damage? Kids or adults?
What is the Corpus Callosum?
Large bundle of neural fibers that connects the two brain hemispheres and relays messages
What is Split Brain?
A condition where the two hemispheres of the brain are separated
What is a dramatic but oftentimes necessary treatment for grand mal seizures?
Severing the Corpus Callosum
In general, which side of the cortex controls the other side of the body?
Left controls the right and vice versa
What is the Optic Chiasm?
It is the area in the brain where the nerves to each eye cross each other in the corpus callosum
The study of how much mental processes help people adapt to their environment is called what?
The notion that the consequences of a behavior determine whether it will be likely to occur again was formulated by who?
B.F. Skinner
The characteristics of an experiment that allows one to draw accurate inferences about a casual relationship between an IV and a DV is called what?
Internal Validity!
The OCD checklist asks several questions relating to demographics, emotions, and substance use. This OCD checklist lacks what?
Construct Validity!
What are the regions of the brain composed of neurons that help provide sense and meaning to information registered in the cortex?
Association Areas
What are the three main divisions of the brain?
Hindbrain, Midbrain, and Forebrain
What is internal validity?
Extent to which an experiment has effectively controlled for confounding variables
What are confounding variables?
Uncontrolled variables that change along with the independent variable
What is the Limbic System?
System of structures thought to be involved in motivation, emotional behaviors and memory