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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the effects and types of Hallucinogens (Psychodelics)?
Alter individuals perception of reality

What are the Three types of Neurons?
1. Sensory- Afferent Neurons
2. Processing- Internerurons
3. Motor-Efferent Neurons
What is Somniloquy?
What does an Axon Hillock in a neuron do?
connects axon to soma
What scientist studied REM Deprivation in Humans and what were the results?

Forgetful, simple problem solving, irritable, Paranoia
What is the Pons?
The bridge that connects the upper and lower
What is the voltage of a resting Neuron?
-70 MV
What happens if an afferent neuron is damaged?

What is a Telodendrea in a Neuron?
it is a split in the axom a new branch
What does a neuron do?
Specialized nerve cell carryies nerual information/ conducts electrical impulses
What are Glial Cells?
Support Cells for neurons, they cannot conduct electrical impulses.
Where is the location of the Frontal Lobe and what does it do?
Front of Brain
Controls Motor abilities
What are night terrors?
Extreme fear when sleeping
What happens if an Interneuron is damaged?
Memory Loss

Who was Ranvier?
Ranvier discovered that Myelin didn't cover the entire axom
What are the two parts of the Central Nervous system?
1. Brain
2. Spinal Cord
What voltage will a neuron have during the absolute refractory period?
-80 mv
What is the Ventrical (in the brain)?
Open space
Lined with Choroid Plexus which makes cerebro- spinal fluid
What are the effects and types of Stimulants?
Increase behavior, surge of energy

What is the Medulla Oblongata?
Controls Autonomic responses such as breathing, heartbeat, pulse
What is REM Sleep Disorder?
Acting out your dreams
What is a Thalamus?
Sensory Relay station
Recieves incoming sensory infor and redirects it to appropriate parts of the brain. (No Olfactory)
What are the 4 kinds of brain waves?
1. Alpha
2. Beta
3. Delta
4. REM Sleep
What are the Features of the Human Brain?

(Why Can't Connie Build a Sun Room?)
1. Weight-3 lbs
2. color- pinkish (cappilleria) to greyish (myelin)
3. Convoluted- wrinkled
4. Bilaterally Symetrical in appearance- right and left appear the same
5. Asymetrical in Function
6. Specificity- specific structures govern specific functions
7. Redundancy- if MINOR brain damage occurs other structures attempt those functions
How do you measure brain wave activity?
With an EEG machine
Who studied Epilepsy and what did he find?
Sperry discovered that by severing the corpus callosum seizures were lessened. There was no personality change, the brains did function as two seperate parts.
How do you Induce REM sleep both physically and chemically?
Electrically stimulate the Gigantocellular Tegmentum

and Chemically stimulate by injecting Norepinephrine
What is Reticular Formation/ Reticular Activating System?
Controls Sleep/Wakeness
runs the entire length of the brain stem.
What are the effects and types of Antipsychotics?
Used to treat people with psychoses (out of touch with reality such as Scitzophrenia)

What are the Lobes of the Brain ?
Left Temporal
Right Temporal
What are the 5 types of Psychoactive drugs?
1. Stimulants
2. Depressants
3. Opiates
4. Hallucinogens
5. Anti-Psychotic
What is the location of the Temporal Lobes and what do they do?
Left side
Speech and hearing
Right Side
spacial relations, jokes, comparisons, emotions, creativity, distinguish facial features.
How do you stimulate Delta sleep both Physically and Chemically?
Electrically stimulate the Raphe Nucleus

and Chemically stimulate by injecting Seroronim
What are the 5 kinds of Protection for the brain?

(How Sam Can Make Cookies)
1. Hair
2. Skin- Epidermus
3. Cranium- Skull Bone
4. Meninges- Layers of protection
5. Chroid Plexus- Produces spinal fluid
What is Narcolepsy?
Sudden sleep attacks during activity
What is the Autonomic Nervous system and what are its two components?
Self regulating system
Sympathetic- adrenalin (fight fright or flight)
ParaSympathetic- Rest
What is Somnambulism?
What are the three types of Meninges?
1. Dura Mater- Tough outermost layers
2. Arachnoid- Middle Layer Looks spongy like a spider
3. Pia Mater- delicate innermost layer
What is Calalepsey?
Paralysis during REM sleep.
Where is the locaion of the Parietal Lobe and what does it do?
Tops the Cerebrum
Somesthetic (touch)
What is Cataplexy?
muscle weakness during REM sleep
What is the Hypothalamus?
governs eating and drinking, sexual behavior, works with the Limbic system (governs emotion). Also governs Rage and Temperature regulation.
What are the characteristics of REM sleep?
Rapid Eye movement/ paradoxical

rapid, irregular, desynchranize
20-25 cycles
Asleep 80-90 minutes
What happens if an Efferent Neuron is damaged?
Grand Mal Seizures

What are the characteristics of Delta Waves?
Slow wave sleep
Slow regular and syncranized
3-5 cycles
Asleep 30-60 minutes
What is the Cerebellum?
Balance and Coordinates movement
What does the myelin sheath in a neuron do?
Its made of lipids and fats and protects the Axom
What is the Pituitary gland?
Master gland of the endocrine system. Influences all the other glands
What are the characteristics of Alpha Waves?
Slower than Beta
9-12 cycles
Resting and drowsiness occur
What is a corpus callosum?
Connects the right and left hemisphere.
What are the effects and types of Opiates?
Supress Pain

What does a Cerebrum do?
Plan and postpone
higher level reasoning
What is Insomnia?
Inability to sleep
What is the location of the Occipital Lobe?
It is located at the rear of the cerebrum
What are the effects and types of Depressants?
Decrease Behavior

What are the three actions once the Neural Transmitters are released?
1. Absorbtion by post synaptic membrane
2. Reuptake occurs by pre synaptic
3. Destruction (Enzyme)by pre synaptic membrane
word ending in ASE is an Enzyme
What are the three functions of Glial Cells?
Bring Nutrients
Manufacture Myelin
Phagocylosis- consume dead matter
What does an Axon in a neuron do?
carries info away from cell body
What is a terminal button in a neuron?
The end
What is the Absolute refractory period?
resting period for a neuron to prevent fatigue
What does a Synaptic Vessicle in a neuron do?
Stores nerual transmitters specialized chemicals that influence brain chemistry
What is a soma?
Cell Body
What voltage must a Neuron have to have stimulation/ action potential?
+40 mv
Compare Delta (slow wave sleep) with REM sleep.
1. 3-5 cycles vs. 20-25 cycles
2.Dull dreams vs. bright vivid dreams
3. No safety mechanisms vs. Cataplexy and calalepsey
4. Autonomic responses are regular vs. irregular
5. No response vs. Penile erection or vaginal moistening
What are the characteristics of Beta Waves?
rapid desyncrianzed, irregular waves
20-25 cycles per second
What does Dendrite in a neuron do?
Spine like braches that recieve nerve messages and direct them to the soma
What is Sleep Apnea
Innability to sleep and breath simultaneously
What scientist studied REM Deprivation in cats and what were the results?
Cats were irritable, Hypersexuality, Death
What are three side effects of Antipsychotics?
Tardrive Dyskenesia (loss of muscle control)
Dry Mouth
What does a node of Ranvier in a neuron do?
Spaces without Myelin promote speedy transmittal of neural info/electrical impulses