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40 Cards in this Set

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What is the formal definition of Psychology?

The scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behavior in a given context.

What happened in 1879 and what did Wilhelm Wundt have to do with it?

Wilhelm Wundt opened the Institute for Experimental Psychology at the University of Leipzig in Germany in 1879. This was the first laboratory dedicated to psychology.

Which early school of thought in psychology relied on a method called introspection?

Structuralism

Whats the definition of a hypothesis?

A supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.

Naturalistic Observation

Research tool in which a subject is observed in its natural habitat without any manipulation by the observer.

Survey

A general view, examination, or description of someone or something.

Case Study

A process or record of research in which detailed consideration is given to the development of a particular person, group, or situation over a period of time

What is an Independent Variable?

A variable (often denoted by x ) whose variation does not depend on that of another.

What is a Dependent Variable?

A variable (often denoted by y ) whose value depends on that of another.

What is the purpose of a control group?

The purpose of the group of controls is to be able to have an altered sample of the control and be able to compare test results.

Job of sensory neuron?

Specialized neurons in your body that can detect the environment. Your sensory neurons are what make up your five primary senses and all of the sub-senses like flavors on the tongue or what your skin feels.

Job of motor neuron?

The function of a motor neuron is to carry an electrical signal to a muscle, triggering it to either contract or relax.

Function of the endorphins?

Interact with the opiate receptors in the brain to reduce our perception of pain and act similarly to drugs such as morphine and codeine.

Cause of Parkinson's Disease?

Parkinson's disease is caused by the progressive impairment or deterioration of neurons (nerve cells) in an area of the brain known as the substantia nigra. When functioning normally, these neurons produce a vital brain chemical known as dopamine.

What is the sympathetic nervous system responsible for?

It is the sympathetic nervous system that is responsible for these responses that get your body aroused to respond. “Fight or flight,” in times of danger.

Main link between the nervous system and the endocrine system?

The "pituitary/hypothalamic axis" is one answer to your question. Signals from neurons to the pituitary, OR THE HYPOTHALMUS, can release hormones.

Which part of the brain controls breathing, heartbeat, and other vital body functions?

Medulla oblongata.

What are the four lobes of the cerebral cortex of the brain?

The frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe.

What is the formal definition of consciousness?

The state of being awake and aware of one's surroundings.

Define circadian rhythm.

Physical, mental and behavioral changes that follow a roughly 24-hour cycle, responding primarily to light and darkness in an organism's environment.

What is a lucid dream?

Any dream in which one is aware that one is dreaming.

When does dreaming usually occur? What is it like?

Dreaming occurs in REM. Dreams are successions of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that occur involuntarily in the mind.

What is REM sleep behavior disorder?

The paralysis that normally occurs during REM sleep is incomplete or absent, allowing the person to "act out" his or her dreams.

Define conditioning.

A process of behavior modification by which a subject comes to associate a desired behavior with a previously unrelated stimulus.

UCS

Unconditioned stimulus.

UCR

Unconditioned response.

CS

Conditioned stimulus.

CR

Conditioned response.

Basic idea of operant conditioning?

Behavior modification in which a subject is encouraged to behave in a desired manner through positive or negative reinforcement, so that the subject comes to associate the pleasure or displeasure of the reinforcement with the behavior.

Define Memory.

The faculty by which the mind stores and remembers information.
What is echoic memory? Contrast it with iconic memory.
Echoic: A component of sensory memory (SM) that is specific to retaining auditory information.



Iconic: The visual domain and a fast-decaying store of visual information.

What is explicit memory?
The conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information.
What are the two types of motivated forgetting? How is one different from the other?
The two types of motivated forgetting are repression (unconsciously) and suppression (consciously).
What is Jean Piaget best known for?
Best known for his research on children's cognitive development.
What are the two basic areas of social psychology?
Self, Interpersonal, and Intergroup Processes and Health Psychology
2. What is the out-group homogeneity effect?
The out-group homogeneity effect is one's perception of out-group members as more similar to one another than are in-group members.
What is Stanley Milgram best known for?
One of the most famous studies of obedience in psychology was carried out by Stanley Milgram (1963).
What is the bystander effect?
Cases in which individuals do not offer any means of help to a victim when other people are present.
What is the DSM-V?
Standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals in the United States and contains a listing of diagnostic criteria for every psychiatric disorder recognized by the U.S. healthcare system.
What is the primary goal of psychoanalysis?
Symptom relief, increased self- awareness, and a more objective capacity for self-observatio.