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9 Cards in this Set

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AO1: Importation model

Irwin and Cressey

Institutional aggression refers to aggression within or between groups or institutions for example prisons. The importation model suggests that inmates in prison bring their social histories and traits into prison with them and this has an influence on their adaptation to the prison environment. Irwin and Cressey argue that people who were more aggressive outside of prison will be more aggressive in prison: they are not ‘blank slates’ when they enter prison.

definition, bring,histories,traits,influence,adaptation,more aggressive outside,blank slates

A02:Harer and Steffensmier 2006.

A strength of the importation model is that it has research support by Harer and Steffenmeier who in a study of 58 US prisons found that black inmates were significantly more aggressive than white inmates. However white inmates were significantly more likely to engage in alcohol and drug taking compared to black inmates. They argued that these behaviours reflect the cultural norms of black and white societies outside of prison and therefore the findings show that the behaviours have been imported into the prison. Consequently, this supports the notion of the importation model and therefore the credibility of the idea that social histories can influence the levels of aggression in institutions is increased.

58, prisons, black, more aggressive, white, alcohol , drug taking,cultural norms, behaviours,imported

IDA; Gaes et al 2002

Thereis further support for the notion that the importation model is an explanation ofinstitutional aggression. Gaes etal 2002 conducted a study using 82,000 male inmates in the US and found thatregardless of citizenship, Hispanics were more violent than non-Hispanics.Asian prisoners were less likely to engage in serous violent behavior. Thus,ethnicity appeared to have a powerful effect on prisoner violence, therefore supportingthe importation model and increasing the credibility that the importation model has as anexplanation of institutional aggression.

82,000, inmates,regardless ,citizenship, Hispanics,violent,Asian,less,ethnicity,effect

AO1:Gang Membership

Marcell et al


Withinprison environments, gang membership is frequently related to aggression. Marcell et al commented on how pre-prison gangmembership is an important determiner of prison misconduct. They found that inprisons, gang members engage in more acts of prison violence compared tonon-members. Huff found that gang members in the US were 10 times more likelyto murder and 3 times more likely to assault than those outside a gang from asimilar age and background.

gang,related,membership, determiner, misconduct,Huff, 10 murder, 3 times assault,background

A02: Delisi et al 2004

The importation model predicts that being a member of a violent gang before entering prison will result in increased levels of violence in prison as this behaviour will be imported to the new environment. Delisi et al 2004 conducted a study of over 800 male inmates found no evidence that membership of a violent gang prior imprisonment had any bearing on levels of violence within prison. Therefore the credibility of the importation model as an explanation for institutional aggression is reduced..

predicts, gang,imported,environment, 800,no evidence,prior,bearing,credibility

402: Delsi et al and Fischer

Evidence from Delisi et al challenges the notion that’s pre-prison gangmembership leads to violence in prison as they foundno evidence that membership of a violent gang prior imprisonment had anybearing on levels of violence within prison. However the negativecorrelation can be explained using Fischer as he found that isolating knowngang members reduces the rates of institutional aggression by 50% which is dueto the fact that violent gang members tend to be isolated from the generalinmate population. This in turn reduces the internal validity of Delisi’sfindings thus making it less of a criticism of the gang-membership aspect ofthe importation model.

Delisi , challenges,no evidence,prior,bearing, negative, Fischer,isolating, internal

A01: Deprivation model

(Paterline and Peterson)

The deprivation model argues that that prisoner aggression is a product of stressful and oppressive conditions within the institution. (Paterline and Peterson). The model suggests that because prisoners are deprived of things such as freedom and home comforts and have to deal with conditions such as overcrowding , physical conditions of heat and noise and a lack of meaningful activity, this causes them to become frustrated which leads to violent behaviour towards other inmates and staff.

aggression, product, stressful, oppressive conditions,deprived, freedom,overcrowding,physical,heat,noise,activity,frustrated


Wilson (2010)

A real world applicationthat has arisen from the deprivation model is that changes to prisons have ledto reduced aggression. Wilson (2010) reformed HMP Woodhull by giving inmatesmore space, less noise and a lower temperature and which resulted in a dramaticdecrease in institutional aggression among inmates.Thefindings suggest that once a more ‘pleasant’ environment was introduced, theaggression was eliminated thus supporting the deprivation model. Consequentlyincreasing the credibility that the deprivation model has as an explanation of institutionalaggression.

changes,reduced aggression,HMP Woodhull, space, less noise , lower temperature,dramatic decrease,‘pleasant,eliminated, deprivation

AO2: All settings

Nijman et al.

However, the application of the deprivation model doesn’t work in all types of institutions. Nijman et al. found that increased personal space in psychiatric institutions failed to decrease the amount of violence among patients. This suggests that while the deprivation model may be applicable to prison environments, it may not be relevant to violence within psychiatric institutions. This suggests that the deprivation model is not generalizable and thus an unreliable theory.

increased, space,psychiatric failed, decrease,not relevant, not generalisable, unreliable