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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Governance of vaccination in the UK

Joint Committee of Vaccination and Immunisation


decide whether populations are vaccinated depending on:

vaccine efficiacy

burden of disease

vaccine safety

cost of vaccination

the ideal vaccine

safe to recipient

-not cause disease

-have no significant Sx

prevent infection in all cases

if virus has serotypes, vaccine should be cross reactive

life long protection

easy to administer


relatively cheap

Natural immunisation

when person comes in contact with pathogen immune memory forms to prevent future infections

Examples of different types of vaccination

Whole microorganism



subunit of microorganisms

-inactivated toxin

-recombinant proteins


-conjugate vaccines (polysaccharide combined with more immunogenic conjugate to get T cell help

named vaccines from type of vaccine:



yellow fever

VZV (chickenpox/shingles)


named vaccines from type of vaccine:


Whole cell pertussis


named vaccines from type of vaccine:

inactivated toxin

tetanus, diphtheria toxoid

named vaccines from type of vaccine:

recombinant proteins

Hep B


named vaccines from type of vaccine:





Live attenuated vaccines

induce stronger immune respnose than dead

more dangerous

risk of vaccine infection

to ↓ risk pathogen is attenuated (inactivated)

small risk that attenuated → live

this has happened in type 3 Sabin polio vaccine


materials injected with vaccine → enhance immune response

most common: alum

microbial agent is adsorbed onto alum

soluble protein → particulate material → ↑ tendency to be phagocytosed by APC

also depot of slow release of antigen

phagocytic APCs



Co-administring vaccines

enhances response to vaccines

e.g. co-administration of pertussis enhances Ab response to Diptheria and Tetanus

incomplete Freund's adjuvant

Oil-in-water emulsion

complete Freund's adjuvatn

when dead mycobacteria are added to the emulsion → ↑ stimulus for innate system, → enhanced expression of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines by APCs

Conjugate vaccines

possible to induce Ab response in infants to bacterial capsular polysaccharides

by conjugating polysaccharide to protein antigens like Diptheria + Tetanus toxoids

B cells specific for the polysaccharide internalise conjugate

present peptides from toxoids on surface

Thus B cells can get help from Th2 helper cells primed against the toxoids

Conjugate vaccines diagram

Graph of Ab response to 1º and 2º inoculum of infection/vacciantion

Ab response to 1º and 2º inoculum of infection/vacciantion

1º inoculum

IgM Abs

hours -days to make Abs

low affinity

IgG Abs

4-6 weeks to make Abs

high affinity

2º inoculum

rapid boost of IgG response


higher conc. than after 1º exposure

Vaccine safety

allergic reactions can occur but is rare

chicken eggs used to make viral vaccines → egg protein in vaccine → anaphylaxis but this is very rare

Ca. vaccines

HPV vaccine for cervical ca.

Monoclonal Abs for ca.

Herceptin for breast ca.

anti-CD20 for B cell lymphoma

but still very experimental

Passive immune treatments

1. Mother-foetus -

IgG Abs enter foetal blood

last trimester

infant Ab protection for 4-6 months

2. Patients born without B cells/ have Ab deficiency

give Ig IV or subcutaneous

giving protection against range of pathogens

3. patients with immunodeficiency/particular risk

pregnancy, pooled serum from donors with high tires of neutralising Ab

good e.g. VZV hyper immune serum

Passive immune treatments examples

Human serum


-Rhesus D


Animal serum


Monoclonal Abs

Anti Respiratory syncitial virus