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35 Cards in this Set

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Prince Henry the Navigator
He was a really important map maker and was Portuguese wanted to find the kingdom of the christian Indian-Prester John
Bartholomew Diaz
Portuguese explorer whose voyage along the coast of Africa in 1488 reached the Cape (of Good Hope) thus proving that a sea route to the East was possible.
Vasco da Gama
Diaz made it to Cape) in 1498 V.d G rounded Cape and made it to India (to Calicut on the Malabar coast) He was Portuguese sea captain. Brought back ship loaded with Eastern goods worth many times (x60) cost of expedition. .) Significant because established Portuguese interest in east - first all sea route to valuable trade sites.
Portugal's First Governor General of Goa on Malabar Coast. FIRST of Europe's commercial-colonial empires - maintained by firearms and sea power.
St. Francis Xavier
Portuguese Jesuit who, by 1550, baptized thousands of souls in India, Indonesia and Japan - in areas of Portuguese influence. Followed da Gama & Albuquerque.
Spain, 1519-22, Portuguese explorer whose expedition completed first circumnavigation of world. Died in Philippines
Northwest and Northeast Passage
After the Treaty of Tordesillas(below) and Magellan's pioneering of Southwest passage, north European powers (English, French and Dutch) became more concerned with trying to find a NW or NE passage to the orient. None was successful but all helped establish claims and later trading routes were established.
Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494
and Portugal divided up globe into areas of interest. Drew imaginary line N to S (Line of Demarcation) down Atlantic. Pope sanctioned treaty - not wanting two important nations fighting over territory.
Spanish settled Americas with their own civilizations Conquerors such as COLUMBUS - subjected Indians populations of "West Indies" to Spanish rule; CORTEZ - defeated MONTEZUMA and the AZTECS of Mexico; and PIZARRO - defeated ATAHUALPA and the INCAS of Peru, ALL exploited native civilizations for benefit of mother country.
Black Legend
Spanish tried to dismiss negative picture of their activities in the Americas as myth concocted by their trading rivals in Europe. It is true that the conquistadores were often extremely brutal and there is no doubt that Sp. saw the empire in America as existing purely for the benefit of the mother country
Bartolome de las Casas
Spanish priest who travelled to New World with conquistadores and sent back to Spain reports of the brutalities against the natives.Had come to recognized them as God's children being grossly mistreated. . He had inadvertantly stimulated one of the great human tragedies of modern times.
New World equivalent of manorial system. "Lord" or Spanish overseer controlled work of Indian laborers - four days per week. But often abused. Like system in E. Euro. Black slavery introduced as Indian pop. declined - disease mostly.
ppl of mixed (Sp. and Indian) descent in New World. Since few Sp. women came to New World there was mixing of races and new racial/mixed ethnic group. Many adopted Sp. lang and Roman Catholic faith. Castilian Spaniards looked down on mestizos as inferior.
by mid 1500s Spanish America consisted of two great viceroyalties or units of govt. - Mexico & Peru. With 22 bishoprics and a Univ. in each. (Universities of Lima and Mexico pre-date Harvard)
University of Lima
Estab. 1551, Predates Harvard(1636). Early educational development in New World. Five such universities on Euro model established in Sp. America before Harvard founded.
In Peru - 1545 - huge silver deposits discovered. Shipped back to Sp. - financed expeditions of Philip II. Peruvian ores, Indian labor and Spanish management funded militant, anti-Protestant phase of counter-reformation.
Jacques Cartier
1491-1557 French explorer who began the first of his voyages to Canada in search of the NorthWest Passage. During his second voyage, 1535-1536, Cartier sailed up the St. Lawrence River as far as the present site of Quebec city. Cartier's voyages established France's claims to North America.
John Cabot
in 1497 and '98 John and his son, Sebastian, both Genovese sailors, made voyages along the northeast coast of North America. Employed by King Henry VII of England, Cabot hoped to find a northwest passage leading to Asia. Henry soon lost interest in the undertaking, although English claims to North America were based on Cabot's voyages.
Henry Hudson
English sea captain who, in 1609, in the service of Holland calimed the area around the Hudson River valley for the Dutch. Settlers arrived from Holland to colonize the area. However, in 1664, the English captured the Dutch holdings there, during the Navigation Wars, and that included taking over the Dutch city of New Amsterdam which subsequently became New York.
"Price Revolution
rise in prices/decline in value of a given unit of money gave rise to a gradual inflation. Slow spiralling inflation (not comparable to 20th.C inflation.) Caused by population growth which gave rise in increased demand for food. This led to the use of marginal land for agriculture and therefore an increase in cost of production. In Engl. 16thC - agricultural prices X 4. Also debasing of currency added to problem as did huge flow of Spanish gold and silver from new world(Americas). All prices went up including rents but wages slowest to rise therefore adversely affecting conditions of working classes. Favored merchants/middle class which has more customers/higher demand for goods and services and as entrepreneurs the middle class merchants found it easier to repay loans over time since value of money was going down.
association of craftsmen producing common articles for local use. Master & apprentices/journeymen.
enterpriser working in larger market than guildsmen. Started as merchant and often became banker(ex. Medici, Fuggers) Organised and manage businesses (wheeler & dealer) and took financial risk. Big fortunes could be made at this time.
Florentine business family, patriarch was Cosimo who established family's power in 1434. Lorenzo, a descendant, would be the great patron of Renaissance artists. Started as wool merchants and became bankers. Great wealth and power. Family would later produce two popes and two queens of France.
the family’s patriarch was a weaver (1368) during mini ice age in Augsburg, Germany. Produced fustian (wool with cotton) - wider market. Traded with Venice for cotton and got into other items of trade. Diversified into mining. Then to Banking - Banker to popes, emperors and kings - financed Portug. trade - became great bankers of Euro. Declined only with German economic decline of 16th. C and bankruptcies of Hapsburgs. No bankruptcy insurance in those days.
in Middle Ages loaning money & charging interest was seen as usury - denounced by Church as avarice and forbidden under canon law. In 16th C still frowned upon. Theologians of U. Paris still ruled agnst it in 1530 and Luther condemned Fuggerism. Calvin made some allowances but Dutch Calvinist ministers still disapproving of it in 1640. However as interest rates went down and loans were for productive uses not just to sustain eccliastics and princes - attitudes changed.By 17th C reasonable interest rates accepted as necessary to economies.
commercial capitalism
not only what needed to be made but where to sell it - commercial-
ization of industry. Producers made goods by order of merchants who often supplied capital. This type
of capitalism would remain in effect until industrial capitalism of 19th C. Often included Domestic
System/Putting Out.
policies beginning with bullionism and leading to idea of building strong self-sufficient
national economy. Country's wealth measured in gold. To acquire gold it was necessary for exports > imports. To accomplish this, the government could discourage imports with high tariffs and encourage exports by subsidizing new industries. Should acquire colonies, bring in raw materials from colonies and sell exports to them and other countries. Should discourage development of manufacturing industries in colonies – instead have them focus on providing raw materials and prevent colonies from trading with other countries.
favorable balance of trade
exporting more than importing (selling more than buying on a national level).
Statute of Artificers
of 1563 in England - Parliament regulated admission to apprenticeship and level of wages in various trades. Doing at a national level what guilds had previously done at local level. Thereby further demonstrating move to nation-centered economy. In effect this showed that England's government was prepared to start limiting power of guilds in order to better promote commerce in an age ripe for trade.
internal tariffs
provincial and municipal tariffs against imports from outside. In effect from medieval times to protect local industries/crafts united under guilds. Mercantilists sought to end these tariffs and impose external tariffs to protect domestic industries. Much resistance to this and took a while to accomplish. England more successful in breaking down internal tariffs than continental Euro.
chartered trading companies
merchants and their respective govts came together to found official companies for transoceanic trade. England in 1553 with discovery of White Sea and the port of Archangel in northern Russia founded a Russian trading company. From 1600 on, many East India Companies - English, Dutch and French - were founded Each held a monopoly and each expected to find markets for domestic products and bring home the bullion(gold and silver).
"social structure"
": refers to composition, functions and interrelationships of social classes. Changes in this v. slow and hard to identify. However, the effects of commercial revolution, rising population and falling value of money -> classes taking new forms that would last until industrial era of 19th & 20th C. These classes - landed aristos, peasantry, M.C. and urban poor.
: In England - a class of small freeholders(the yeomanry) developed between the landed gentry and the rural poor. Reached this status because they had fixed payments to manorial lords and due to inflation acquired more wealth & became small landowners.
Poor Law of 1601
: In England. Designed both to force people to work and to relieve absolute destitution - part of mercantilist policies. Remained in effect, with amendments until 1834. Made local areas responsible for their own homeless and unemeployed and offered ways to raise money for charity and provide work for beggars - kept poor in their area rather than wandering about.
below aristocracy in social structure were the MC or bourgeoisie - French word like the English word burgher - person living in a chartered town or borough and enjoying its liberties. Whole class known as bourgeoisie. (Marx would later use term to refer to owners of capital).