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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The Second Estate

The Estates was a social hierarchy in the Old Regime determined by birth right. The Second Estate was the Nobility who originated from the knights of the Middle Ages giving these noble families a tendency to have a military tradition.


The dominant ideology of royal power in old regime Europe. It's main principal: royal power is sacred, paternal, absolute, and subjected to reason. Main form of government during the Old Regime.

The Atlantic System

A web of trade routes that connected Europe, Africa, and the New World in the 18th century. It was a constant flow of people, goods, and ideas.

The Encyclopédie

The representative product of the Enlightenment. The idea behind it was to collect the totality of human knowledge in one place, and make it accessible to everyone.

The National Convention

1792-1795: This body replaced the Legislative Assembly. It came into being after the fall of the monarchy. It was thus the government of France when it first became a republic. This is the legislative body that oversaw, among other things, the Reign of Terror.

Republican Calendar

The republican calendar was created by the revolutionaries in September 1793 and lasted for 12 years. Its aim was to replace the Gregorian, Christian calendar with a secular, rational one. The counting of the years started from Year 1. Months and days received new named that were derived from nature and agriculture.

Olympe de Gouges

Author of the "Declaration of the Rights of Women." Renowned playwright. She was guillotined during the Terror because of her affiliation with the moderate girondins.

The Congress of Vienna

A conference of ambassadors of European states held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arises from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

The Code Noir

Decree originally passed by France's King Louis XIV in 1685. Defines the conditions of slavery in the French colonial empire.


A former French colony that is today known as Haiti. It was once the most profitable colony in the world producing most of it's coffee and sugar.

Toussaint L'ouverture

Leader of the Haitian Revolution. His leadership transformed an entire society of slaves into the first successful uprising that led to their independence.


An artistic, intellectual and cultural movement, that reached its peak in first half of 19th century. Its main center of activity was in Germany and England.

The Means of Production

At the basis of every social structure are the means of production. These are what people use in order to produce things of value. The owners of these are the elites of society.

The Proletariat

The modern working class in capitalism. They have nothing to sell but their labor power (their time). Marx said that the next big revolutionary movement will be led by them.

The Springtime of the People

The uprisings that occurred across Europe in 1848. These were due to the peoples desire for a revolution

Social Darwinism

The application of Darwin theory to the study of society and politics. This gave birth to racist views that Europe's elites used to justify their dominance over other people around the world.

Hottentot Venus

An African women that was excited as a freak show around 19th century Europe. This phenomenon demonstrated Europeans culture of being the dominant culture and putting the "others" of display.

The Civilizing Mission

The European countries proposal to contribute to the spread of civilization. They believed as being the superior it was their duty to civilize the inferior.

Friedrich Nietzsche

Thinker during the time of modernity and crisis. He believed that he saw the "death of God" and criticized European modern culture as mediocre and superficial.

King Leopold's Congo

The Berlin conference gave King Leopold, the king of Belgium, a private territory, the Congo. With his territory he established a rubber company with the use of slave labor and committed horrible acts of violence. In the end he lost it.

The Bolsheviks

Wing of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party, which, led by Lenin, seized control of the government in Russia and became the dominate political power.


Coined by Hannah Arendt after WWII. Absolute control by the state to control society with the regular use of police violence and terror.

The Rape of Nanking

In 1937, Japanese forces took over the city of Nanking, China's southern capital. During this time the Japanese committed massive atrocities.

Raphael Lemkin

He is a Polish-Jewish lawyer who coined the term genocide. When he coined it though he did not have the Holocaust in mind. Rather, he was thinking about the Ottoman genocide the Armenian population during WWI.

The Wannsee Conference

The meeting of Nazi leaders in Berlin in January 1942, where they decided on the final solution to the Jewish question.


Special, mobile units whose job was to kill Jews and communists in the Soviet Union. They followed the German army, the Wehrmacht, and after they move out of an area, they would identity Jews and Communists and shoot them in front of high pits that their prisoners dug up.


Program enacted by the United States. Its purpose was to remake Germany society morally by ridding it of Nazi elements. Trails were enacted on the radio, Germany citizens were required to watch documentary movies detailing Nazi atrocities. Many even had to go through tribunals, determining what role they play in the Nazi state.

The Marshall Plan

An American initiative to aid the rebuilding of Western Europe after the war. The US government dedicated about 13 billion dollars for thus purpose. It was also a way of securing American interests in Western Europe.

The Algerian War

Most violent, most protracted struggle of decolonization. It began in 1954 and ended in 1962. During the war, Algerians undertook the use of terrorism and France retaliated with torture and brutal tactics. The war ended in 1962 with the independence of Algeria and the pulling out of France from the region.

The Affair of the Veil

Really a debate about European identity, about the kind of society and culture that will develop in Europe in the future.

Essay Question I:

Analyze whether or not the French Revolution can be seen as a turning point in both European and world history.

Before French Revolution

-The Old Regime (Absolutism)


-Atlantic System Weakening Old Regime by creating new forms of wealth and groups

French Revolution

-Process of groups asking for recognition of rights

After French Revolution

-Because of the French Revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte was able to climb social ladder and become leader of France, this changed European and World History because with this power he was able to conquer a lot and during his conquers he spread the word of revolutionary ideas that shaped Europe and the world for the modern era

-Also the Hatian Revolution was an example of the French Revolution being a turning point for not only Europe but for World History as well because with the turmoil of the French Revolution, this sparked the revolts of the slaves in the colony of having hopes of being set free.

Essay Question II:

Explain how the elements that we have identified with modernity (capitalism, industrialization, imperialism, Marxism, nation-building, ect.) were both exciting and unsettling for people in and beyond Europe.


Ghandi & The Indian Revolution

Social Darwinism

Essay Question III:

Analyze whether or not the Second World War can be seen as a turning point in European global domination.

Europe Before the War

-Colonization (25% of the world land mass)

-Large Population in Europe

Europe After the War

-New World Powers (US & USSR)

-Decolonization (Algerian War)

-Destruction of War (Economic & Population)