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176 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Most militant of the iron-wielding empires of Mesopotamia
The Assyrians
Literally, "the land between the two rivers"
The rivers that surrounded Mesopotamia
Tigris and Euphrates
First Mesopotamian civilization
Humankind first cities
Uruk, Ur, Kish, Nippur, and Lagash
The Babylonian Creation (humankind cosmological myth)
Sumerian poem
It was recited during the festival of the New Year
The Babylonian Creation poem
It celebrated the birth of the gods and the order of creation
The Babylonian Creation poem
Described a universe originated by means of spontaneous generation: the sweet and the bitter waters mingled to produce the first gods
The Babylonian Creation poem
The "great mother of the primeval waters"
Hero-god and offspring of wisdom
Destroys the great mother and establish a new order
Literally, "home of the gods"
The holy city of Babylon
Based on "The Babylon Creation" poem, who creates human beings?
Based on "The Babylon Creation" poem, for what purpose Marduk created human beings?
To serve heaven's divinities
Father of the gods, god of heaven
Storm and rain god
god of the primeral sweet waters
god of vegetation, fertility,and the underworld, husband of Ishtar
Dumuzi (Tammuz)
god of wisdom and patron of the arts
god of the earth, wind and air
goddess of love, fertility, and war; queen of heaven
Ishtar (Inanna)
Mother goddess, creator of vegetation; wife of Enlil
goddess of grain
god of the sun; judge and law-giver; god of wisdom
goddess of the moon
Sin (Nanna)
What marks the shift from matriarchy to patriarchy in the polytheistic history?
Maarduk's destruction of the great mother Tiamat
goddess of chaos and love, associated with fertility, the moon, and the planet Venus
Ishtar (Inanna)
goddess that seem to have held priestly authority in the ancient city of Uruk
Ishtar (Inanna)
What are the central motifs in the "Epic of Gilgamesh"?
The theme of human vulnerability and the search for everlasting life
World's first epic
Epic of Gilgamesh
Long narrative poem that recounts the deeds of a hero in quest of meaning and identity
An epic
When was the the Epic of Gilgamesh recorded and when?
It was recorded in Sumer in the late third millennium B.C.E.
As literature, it precedes the Hebrew Bible and all the other major writings of antiquity
The Epic of Gilgamesh
Who was the hero in the Epic of Gilgamesh?
Describe Gilgamesh
2/3 god and 1/3 man, blessed by the gods with beauty and courage
Who was punished with the loss of his dearest companion?
Who was Gilgamesh involved with that brought punishment to him?
Ishtar (queen of heaven)
Gilgamesh dearest companion
What did gilgamesh do after Enkidu's death?
Gilgamesh undertakes a long and hazardous quest in search of everlasting life.
Who is Gilgamesh meets while on his quest?
A mortal named Utnapishtim
Said to have saved humankind from a devastating flood?
The Hebrews believed that ____ saved humankind from a devastating flood
Who was rewarded with the secret of eternal life which Gilgamesh seek for?
Utnapishtim after saving humankind from a devastating flood
What warning did Utnapishtim give to Gilgamesh?
All classes of people, the master and the slave, are equal in death
Based on the Epic of Gilgamesh, what was said by Utnapishtim to restore lost youth?
A plant
Ancient symbol of rebirth and why?
A serpent because of it's ability to shed its skin
What stole the plant from Gilgamesh and why?
Because he guarded it carelessly, a serpent snatched it from him
Symbols of wisdom
Symbol of power
Fifth ruler in the dynasty of Uruk after the flood
Sumerian paradise, a mythical land resembling the Garden of Eden described in the Hebrew Bible
Approximately twelve leagues
approximately 36 miles
Semitic sun god
Important as the world's first epic poem and as the earliest known literary work that tries to come to terms with death or nonbeings
The Epic of Gilgamesh
First written language
Cuneiform script
Where humankind's earliest Bronze Age technology was produced?
In Sumer
Where was the base-60 number system (origin of the seconds and minutes) created?
In Sumer
In each of the city-states of Sumer, who led the army, regulated the supply and distribution of food, and provided political and religious leadership?
The individual priest-kings
Ruled as agents of one or another of the gods
Why the city-states of Sumer were vulnerable to invasion?
Because they were disunited and rivalrous
Gifted Akkadian warlord
Sargon I
Conquered Sumer and united the city-states under his command around 2350 B.C.E.
Sargon I
How long did Sargon I reign?
56 years
Sole ruler an representative of the gods
Theocratic monarch
Theocratic monarch (sole ruler and representative of the gods)
Sargon I
Created the world's first multi-ethnic empire consolidating various people and language groups
Sargon I
By 2000 B.C.E. his dynasty collapse under the attacks of nomadic tribespeople from the north
Sargon I
Double-sided wooden panel found in the royal tombs excavated at the city of Ur, that holds the social order and division of labor in Mesopotamia
"Standard of Ur"
Semiprecious blue stone
Lapis lazulli
The Standard if Ur constitutes a visual text that sheds light on class divisions and royal authority in what ancient culture?
Mesopotamian culture
Babylon's sixth ruler
Collection of 282 clauses engraved on a 7-foot-high steel
Hammarabi's Code
Most valuable index to ancient Mesopotamian life
Hammarabi's Code
Not the first example of recorded law among the Babylonian kings, but is the most extensive and comprehensive set of laws to survive from ancient times
Hammarabi's Code
Adressed secular matters but it bore the force of divine decree
Hammarabi's Code
Covers a broad spectrum of moral, social, and commercials obligtions
Hammarabi's Code
Under Babylonian law, individuals were not regarded as equals
Hammarabi's Code
Human worth was defined in terms of a person's wealth and status in society
Hammarabi's Code
Violence committed by one free person upon another was punished reprocically
Hammarabi's Code
Violence committed by a free person upon a lower class individual drew lighter punishment, and penalties were reduced even further is the victim was a slave
Hammarabi's Code
In Babylonian society women were considered intellectually and physically inferior to men and much like slaves
Hammarabi's Code
Clause 142: Hammarabi's Code
No-fault divorce:since a husband's neglect of his spouse was not punishable, neither party was legally at fault
Multiplication tables, quadratic quations, square roots, cube roots, and an approximate value of pi are derived in _____.
Windmills are employed for irrigation
In Babylon
Member of the lower class, probably a peasant who worked the land for the ruling class
mina of silver
A pound of silver
Massive terraced tower made of rubble and brick that was the spiritual center of the Mesopotamian city-state
Serve as a shrine and templ, and possible burial site and also symbolized that linked the realms of heaven and earth
Tribal nomads who built an empire lasting until ca. 1200 B.C.E.
Cheaper to produce and more durable than bronze
Made use of iron weapons and horse-drawn war chariots that provided increased speed and motility in battle
Energetic , seafaring people located on the Mediterranean Sea, that developed an alphabet of 22 signs
Successors of the Hittites that began the practice of minting coins
Nomadic people that founded a theocratic state based in a unique belief system that would become the wellspring of: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
The beginnings of Hebrew history are associated with:
Abraham of Ur
Patriarch who is believed to have led the Hebrews westward across the Fertile Crescent to settle in Canaan
Led the Hebrews across the Red Sea
Event that became the basis for the second book of the Hebrew Bible, Exodus
Hebrews cross the Red Sea led by Moses
Literally, "going out"
"promised land"
The belief in a single all powerful creator god
Hebrew's forged the fundamentals of their faith
Sinai dessert near the Dead Sea
The Decalogue
Ten Commandments
Moral laws that define the proper relationship between God and the faithful; also define the ethical obligations between Hebrews
Ten Commandments
Universe was divinely planned and invested with moral order by a benevolent, all-knowing Being
Hebrew Creation
the Hebrew universe was the gift given by it's Creator to his supreme creation:
the veneration of a single god as a moral monitor
Ethical monothiesm
It practice dignified individual moral judgement and became the most lasting of the Hebrew contributions in world culture
Ethical monothiesm
First five books of the Bible are knonw as:
The Torah
Literally means, "instruction"
Parts of the text belong to a common context: the world and lore of ancient Sumer
book of Genesis
The story of the flood appears on which two text?
Genesis and the Epic of Gilgamesh
Regarded as sacred scripture by Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
The Bible
The fault of the parents will fall on their children, grandchildren, and great grandchildren
Exodus 20:5
No promise of reward for obedience, no promise of heaven, no treat of hell; only the terrible warning that God will punish those who fail to keep the commandments to the third generation
The Hebrews Law
Made first Latin translation of the Hebrew Bible
Jerome, fourth-century church father
"people of the Sea"
Named "Israel" by God
Canaan became a powerful state defended by armies equipped with iron war chariots under which Hebrew Kings?
Saul, David, and Salomon
Where was the Ark of the Covenant constructed?
In the city of Jerusalem
Who constructed the Ark of the Covenannt?
King Solomon
Houses of worship
Seven branched candelabrum
ram's horn used to call the faithful to prayer
Established the model for secular and familial authority
The covenant between God and the Hebrews
Hebrews were divided by Solomon into two administrative division:
Northern portion (Israel, capital at Samaria) and the southern portion (Judah, capital Jerusalem)
Literally, "spokespersons"
Claimed to have heard words of divine disapproval and anger
Hebrew prophets that warned of violations of the covenant
Amos, Hosea, Isaiah
What prophet reaffirm the covenant to the Hebrews a century after the fall of Jerusalem to the Assyrians?
"God rewards and punishments not in life hereafter, but here on earth"
Who burned, raided the temple and took the inhabitant of Jerusalem?
King Nebuchadnezzar
Book that raises the questions of unjustified suffering in an universe governed by a merciful God
Book of Job
Post-exile age
Period following the Babylonian captivity
Period marked by apocalyptic hopes and the renewal of the covenant
Post exile-age. (Period following the Babylonian captivity)
Collection of 150 songs of praise, thanksgiving, confession, and suplication
Ritual for public worship
One of the most eloquent songs of praise in the Hebrew Bible
Psalm 8
What type of technology encouraged the rise of large and powerful empires?
Iron technology
First of the Iron Age empire-builders
Earned the reputation as "the most militant civilization of ancient Mesopotamia
First known to construct aqueducts
Who introduced the standard coinage?
The Lydians
Who introduced iron into Mesopotamia?
the Hittites
Last and largest empire of Mesopotamia
Persian empire
called "the Great" for his conquests over territories from India to the Mediterranean Sea
Cyrus II
Capital and ceremonial center of Persia
Persia is now
Greek historian who provided the motto for the United States Postal Service
"wise lord" exalted by Zoraster
The Persians devised a monotheistic religion based on the teachings of the prophet:
Taught tha life was a battlefield on which the opposing forces of light and darkness contended for supremacy
According to his teachings, there will be a "Last Judgement"
Cosmology is characterized by chaos and conflict
Mesopotamian cosmology
Cosmology reflect their sense of order and optismsm
Egypt's cosmology
The_____ are reflected in the behavior and actions of the deities.
forces of nature
considered "the birthplace of civilization"
Mesopotamia (Iraq)
earliest Mesopotamian "civilization"
Besides the fact that the Tigris and Euphrates were not predictable, what was another major factor that affected Mesopotamia?
Natural geography
Had no one particular language or continuos goverment due to constant invasions
What does Egypt and Mesopotamia had in common?
The ____ are reflected in the behavior and action of the deities
Forces of nature
Egypt's cosmology reflected their _____.
sense of order and optimism
Humankind's earliest cosmological myth
The Babylonian Creation
World's first epic
Epic of Gilgamesh
It was recorded in Sumer before the Hebrew Bible
Epic of Gilgamesh
World's earliest recorded literature
Epic of Gilgamesh
Are a fascinating look at a culture's beliefs and morals
Central theme was the quest for everlasting life and immortality
Epic of Gilgamesh
somewhat unique: he is both solar and lunar creature
The bull
Succeeded in unifying Mesopotamis, bringing together diverse people's to form the world's first empire
Sargon I
His empire lasted 350 years
Sargon I
Difference between and Akhenaten monothiesm
Akhenaten worship the sun god Aten
Books that emphasize the values of human experience
The books of the Old Testament
Dispersion of a people from its original homeland