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12 Cards in this Set

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Prosocial behavior

Any behavior that is intended to benefit others. This includes helping behaviors such as giving donations. Sometimes there is an egoistic motiation like donating a money to feel good about oneself

Altruism

Unselfish performance of a prosocial action despite the costs of acting, without the expectation of future benefit

Contrast two theories explaining altruism in humans




Include evaluations and contrasts

Empathy Altruism (Batson)


Tori and Batson


Batson 1983


Kin Selection Theory (Hamilton)


Sime 1983


Burnstein 1994


Sherman




1. Kin selection is dispositional and empathy altruism is situational 2. Kin-selection fails to explain altruism when helping non-related strangers 3. Kin-selection is based on an unconscious egoism for group survival in the genes4. Relatively easy to test in laboratory conditions but difficult to operationalise concepts like empathy

Explain cross-cultural differences in prosocial behaviour

Proactive socio-emotional orientation and concern with the well-being of others provides a social impetus to help strangers. This phenomenon is known as prosocial behaviour.

Whiting 1979: Family responsibilities
Graves and Graves 1985: Caring for younger children
Levine et al 2001: Socio-economic status
High: Calcutta, India and Rio, Brazil
Katz (Theory) - In-group/out-group bias
Bond and Leung - Allocating reward

Explain:
1 Different upbringings result in a different learned behaviors of caring. If it cannot be expected, it will not be performed
2 Richer countries may be used to hired help, may be more likely to be fast-paced, when PPP is high then time is worth more
3 Social identity theory where the in-group is felt to be more valued. It gives positive distinctiveness.
4 Respect for the elderly varies in countries. Collectivistic countries like Korea, maintain a very high respect, whereas countries like Singapor have less.
5 Individualism and collectivism describe culture not cause it
6 Frequency in meeting people, high tendency for cities with higher populations to be less helpful
7 Norms of society that guide behavior. If it is not appropriate to seek help, then not approp to give it either

Discuss factors influencing bystanderism

Bystanderism is the phenomenon of a person not helping someone despite the awareness of the person’s need.




Latane and Darley: diffusion of responsibility


85% dropped to 31%


Batson and Darley: perception of hurry


63% in low condition 10% in late


Latane and Darley: pluralistic ignorance, to look to others to react caused by informational social influence


Pillavin et al: perceived personal cost


50% drunk 95% cane




Discuss:


1 Studies rely on participants belief. Otherwise demand characteristics occur


2 Diffusion of responsibility may be higher in higher populated cities, one theory says linked to less helping


3 Cognitive process of perception is a key factor in most studies


4 Seen as a version of conformity. People believe others possess more knowledge about the situation

Examine the role of culture on forming and maintaining relationships

Culture is a shared information system consisting of beliefs, behaviors and symbols within a larger group of people. Religious, political and moral beliefs are some of the thing that hold the group together.




Buss et al 1989: Importance of love


Gupta and Singh: Happiness in maintenance of relationship


Lindberg 1992: Body-shape preference


Randall 1975: Tuareg tribe


Goodwin and Tang: psychological trait preference




Evaluations/Assumptions:


1 Union of individuals in collectivistic societies are unions of socio-economic statuses and property - arranged marriages


2 Strength: ecological validity, both genders


3 Limitation of quantitative surveys: makes generalizations about culture, those who can afford it may choose love in China, age differences - older might marry for social stability and support in old age rather than love, number of times a person has been divorced


4 Happiness and satisfaction in a relationship will lead to a better maintenance of the relationship itself (bi-directional)


5 Arranged marriages carried out only in collectivist societies


6 Self-reporting can be misleading and subject to participant's demand characteristics


7 Most studies are correctional, finding patterns in data. Can be limited to sample size and population eg little variation in age, religion, economic background


8 Rating of happiness may be different in arranged and love marriages. More emphasis on levels of intimacy and feelings of love in love, more on economic stability and combined emotional support of both families in arranged


9 Social stigma against divorce in arranged. Failure in marriage usually results in shame so may not be open to declaring dissatsfaction


10 Scarcity has effects on cultural norms and beliefs


10 Context of country like rapidly growing or stable may result in changes in cultural effects of what is attractive. Culture is dynamic


11 Assumption: Data will be applicable to the wider population, self reporting and observation uncovers the true impacts of culture


12 Subcultures exist. Should be handled carefully and precisely trying not to draw unrealistic conclusions from correlation


13 Researchers studying a different culture from their own may mischaracterise other cultures because they are limited to their own. 'Humor' means different things


14 Culture should not be generalised to all periods in time as it makes the assumption that cutlure is a static unchanging concept

Analyse why relationships change and end

Duck: inability to communicate


Hill et al: dissimilarity


Baxter: desire for freedom, too much familiarity


Felmlee: fatal attraction




Analysis:

Examine the role of communication on maintenance of relationships

Communication is essential once a relationship has been established. The quality and quantity of communication will determine the success of the relationship. An important aspect of communication is the way couples deal with conflict.




Gottman theory: Four Horseman of the Apocalypse


Fletcher et al 1987: Attributions of conflict


Levenson and Gottman 1983: Ratio of positive to negative communication


Kurdek 2004: Demand/withdrawal communication



Evaluate sociocultural explanations of the origins of violence

Violence in this essay is the expression of anger, and will include both physical and verbal forms of abuse.




Bandura: Social learning theory


Bandura: Bobo dolls


Dollard et al 1939: Frustration aggression theory


Barker et al 1941: Waiting to play with toys


Hovland and Sears 1940: Lynchings 1882-1930


McCain et al: More crowded prisons


Brower and Price 2001: Injuring to frontal lobe


Flynn 1967: Electrical stimulation to hypothalamus



Discuss the effects of short-term and long-term exposure to violence

Olweus 1992: Theory


Wilson et al: Increased violence performance


Carney and Hazler: Heightened levels of cortisol


Elliot et al: Bitterness and suicide

Discuss the effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence

Bandura: Social learning theory


Munroe and Munroe 1975: Childhood aggression


Olweus 1993: Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP)


Pence and Paymar: Duluth Model


Shepard 1992: Decidivism after Duluth intervention

Examine biological, psychological and social origins of attraction.

B: Singh - WHR ratio, Singh and Louis


Buss 1994: Preferred age and qualities


Wedekind: Dirty T shirt




C: Griffit and Veich: Nuclear shelter


Can et al: Similar attitudes and humor


Zanjonc 1971: Evaluate photos of strangers




S: Kerckoff: Proximity theory


Festinger: Proximity in friendship patterns


Clarke 1952: More than 50% of people marry ing in Columbio Ohio lived within walking distance of each other