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44 Cards in this Set

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Bateson et al. (1981)
Aim: To investigate the empathy altruism model.

Participants: Students.


Procedure: A girl called Carol was shown in a video with her legs broken. She talked about her struggles. Each of the students was given a letter to meet Carol and share lecture notes. The students were split into a high empathy group and a low empathy group, and further split into a high cost group and a low cost group.


Findings: Confirmed the empathy-altruism hypothesis. The high-empathy group were equally likely to help whether it cost them high or low, while the low-empathy group only helped when the cost for them not to was be high.


Criticism: The research has only investigated short term altruism, and the interpretation of the results has not taken personality factors into account.

Van Baarenet al. (2004)
Aim: Investigates how helping behavior is affected when a person is being mimicked. Participants:

Procedure: The participant was told the confederate would imitate the participant’s body language and gestures during a conversation (non-verbal synchronization). The confederate dropped a pen, and the extent to which the participant helped them would be observed.


Findings: People who are being imitated show an increase in helping behavior. Imitating promotes pro-social behavior. Criticism: Laboratory experiment.

John Rable: Case Study
Situation: A German Nazi . Moved to China and worked in the Siemens office in Nanjing. Wired Hitler in a an attempt to make the city a neutral zone, and then decided to stay, roaming around the city to prevent atrocities and sheltering as many Chinese as he could.

Ending: Explained his actions in that “There is a question a question of morality here. I cannot bring myself for now to betray the trust these people have put in me, and it is touching to see how they believe in me.”

Bateson and Darley (1973)
Aim: To see if religious devotion makes a difference in terms of willingness to help fellow human beings.

Participants: 40 students at Princeton Theological Seminary


Procedure: Participants were asked to participate in a study of religious education. The first session had a personality questionnaire concerning religiosity was administered. In the second session, the participant was instructed to go to a second building to present about the Parable of the Good Samaritan. Some were told they did not have to hurry, some were told they had sufficient time, some were told they should go to the building directly, some were already late and had to hurry.


Findings: 16 (40%) helped, 63% from the low-hurry condition, 45% from the immediate hurry position, 10% from the late condition. Participants in a hurry were likely to offer less help than those who were not in a hurry. There was no correlation between religiosity and likelihood to help.

Latane/ and Darley (1968)
Aim: To explore diffusion of responsibility. Participants: Students

Procedure: Participants were told they would be interviewed about living in a high-pressure urban environment, and they had to use intercoms to preserve anonymity. Students were told they had either four, two, or one people with them in the group. All comments were actually prerecorded. During the interview, one of the voices cried for help and made choking sounds.


Findings: 85% rushed to help if they thought they were the only person (group of two), 65% when the participant thought there was another person (group of three), and 31 when they thought there were four other people (group of five). This shows that believing somebody else will intervene lowers the probability of the person taking the study. Criticism: Laboratory Experiment. Participants could not see the victim.

Latane/ and Darley (1969)
Aim: To test pluralistic ignorance. Participants:

Procedure: Asked participants to sit in a waiting room. Participants heard the female experimenter fall and cry out in the next room. Sometimes, an impassive confederate was with them.


Findings: The participants acted more quickly when they were alone than when they were sitting with the impassive confederates. The researchers concluded that in order for people to help, they need to understand clearly that help is needed. Participants revealed that they felt anxious, but since others were waiting calmly in the room, they decided there was no emergency.


Criticism: Laboratory experiment.

PiIiaven et al. (1990)
Aim: To study how situational factors may influence helping behavior.

Participants: Opportunity sample of New York City travelers between 11 am and 3 pm Procedure: The participants would experience either one of two scenarios – a man with a cane who appeared ill or a man who appeared drunk would collapse on the floor 70 seconds after train left the station. A model helper was instructed to help if no one else did in 70 seconds. Two female researchers noted frequency of help, speed of help, sex of helper, movement away from the victim, and verbal comments. 38 of the 103 trails were those of the ‘drunk victim’.


Findings: 93% of the time someone helped spontaneously; 60 % of the time, more than one helper was involved. The can victim received help 100 per cent of the time, with a median response of 109 seconds. Diffusion of responsibility was not observed.


Criticism: Field experiment (variables not controlled). Much detailed data.

Case Study: Le Chambon-sur-Lignon
Situation: A village of 5000 Christians sheltered 5000 Jews (mostly Christians). They defied the Vichy government that collaborated with the Nazis and provided their guests with forged identification, ration cards, education for their children, and transportation to Switzerland.

Ending: The Chambonnais were descended of the Huguenots, the first Protestants in Catholic France, and through this they were able to understand the Jews’ plight. Andre Trocme/, a young pastor, said the people felt it was their duty to help those in need. “We do not know what a Jew is…we only know humans.”

Shortland and Straw (1976)
Aim: To see the effect of the ‘family affair’ social norm on people’s behavior. Participants: Opportunity sample

Procedure: They staged an attack by a man on a woman in front of male and female bystanders. Half the bystanders heard the victim say, “I don’t know you!’ while the other half heard, “I don't know why I ever married you!”


Findings: 65% of the bystanders tried to prevent the stranger’s assault, while only 19% intervened when it was a marital dispute. Criticism: Field experiment.

Staub (1983)
Aim: To see if helping behavior could be learned.

Participants: Young children


Procedure: He asked young children either to write letters to other children who were in hospital, to tutor a younger child, or to make toys for chronically ill children. Other young children were allowed to do similar activities for themselves (ex. make toys for themselves or studying with friends).


Findings: The children he asked were more likely to help when placed in a situation where help was desired than children who had engaged in similar activities. This indicates that social norms play an important role in pro-social behavior.


Criticism:

Whiting (1979)
Aim: To investigate how culture plays a role in one’s likelihood to help in some situations. Participants: Children aged 3-11

Procedure: Reported behavior by children in six countries


Findings: Kenyan, Mexican, and Filipino children scored high, while US children scored the lowest


Criticism: Cross-cultural differences in pro-social behavior are correlated with the children’s involvement in the responsibilities of family life. Helping was least likely in communities where the children completed school and were seldom assigned responsibilities for family farming or household chores.

Levin et al. (1990)
Aim: To investigate helpfulness towards strangers in 36 citiesacross the US and 23 large cities around the world.

Participants: Opportunity sampling; 36 cities across US, 23large cities around the worldProcedure: Independent field experiments were conducted tomeasure helping behavior in various situations. (Dropped pen, injured man andfallen magazine, blind person helped across busy intersection, asking forchange, if people mail a lost, stamped, addressed letter)Findings: In the US, people in small and medium-sized citiesin the south-east were the most helpful. The best predictor of helping behaviorwas population density. Helping rates tended to be high in countries with loweconomic productivity, a slow pace in life, and a value in social harmony.Helping tends to be less dependent on the nature of the local people than it ison the characteristics of the local environment (immigrants don’t exhibit samebehavior as their country of origin).Criticism: The tasks may not be valid indicators, it isdifficult to translate behaviors across cultures, it is difficult to generalizean entire culture, it is difficult to attribute meaning to a person’s refusalto help, there is a question of ecological validity.

Marazziti et al. (1999)

Aim: To study theeffect of serotonin on the continuous focus of a beloved.


Participants: 20men and women who had fallen in love in the previous six months; 20 whosuffered from untreated obsessive-compulsive disorder; 20 normal, healthyindividuals used a s controls


Procedure: Analyzed Blood samples


Findings: Serotoninlevels of new lovers were equivalent to the low serotonin levels found inpeople with obsessive-compulsive disorder.Criticism: Fischer(2004) argues that until scientists have documented the activity of serotoninin specific brain regions, it is not possible to document the possible todocument the exact role of serotonin in romantic love, but the study did establisha possible connection between romantic love and low levels of serotonin in theblood.9

Fischer et al. (2003)

Aim: Toinvestigate blood flow in brains that were in love.


Participants: 20men and women who were madly in love


Procedure: Theparticipants were asked to look at photographs of their beloved and a neutralacquaintance. The participants first filled out a questionnaire (PassionateLove Scale) with statements relating to how they felt about their relationship,to compare the brain activity of each participant to what they reported on thequestionnaires. The participants first looked at a photograph of their belovedfor 30 seconds while they were scanned by an fmRI (functional magneticresonance imaging). They had a filler task to distract them. They then lookedat the neutral photograph for 30 seconds while being scanned. This was repeatedsix times.Findings: Thebrain’s ‘reward system’ was particularly active when the lovers looked atpictures of the object of their love 0 and they also found that the morepassionate they were, the more active the brain’s reward circuitry was. Thisconfirmed the pre-experimental self-reports, thus supporting a correlationbetween the attitudes towards the lover and brain activity.Criticism:

Winslow et al. (1993)

Aim: To view therole of the hormone Vasopressin.Participants: Prairievoles, which tended to form stable pair bonds and have more sex than isnecessary for reproductionProcedure: Maleprairie voles were given a drug that suppressed the effects of vasopressin.Findings: Themale prairie voles lost their devotion to their mates and no longer protectedthem from potential suitors. This was taken as evidence that vasopressin playsan important role in males’ attachment and mating behavior.Criticism:

Wedekind (1995)

Aim: To test therole of genes related to the immune system (major histocompatibilitycomplex—MHC) in mate selection.Participants: 49women and 44 men with a wide range of MHC genesProcedure: Gaveeach man a clean T-shirt and asked him to wear it for two nights. He gave themsupplies of odour-free soap and aftershave and asked them to remain asodour-neutral as possible to ensure a strong body odour. They were alsoforbidden to eat spicy food. Wedekind then put each shirt in a plastic-linedcardboard box with a sniffing hole on top. The women were scheduled to returnat the midpoint of their menstrual cycle, when women’s sense of smell is at isbest, and each was presented with a different set of seven boxes. Three of theseven boxes contained T-Shirts from men with MHC similar to the woman’s own;three contained T-shirts from the MHC-dissimilar men; and one contained anunworn t-shirt as a control. The women were asked to rate each of the sevent-shirts as pleasant or unpleasant.Findings: Overall,the women he tested were more likely to prefer the scent of men with dissimilarMHC However, the preference was reversed if they were taking oralcontraceptives. Oral contraceptives raises oestrogen levels in the body,similar to pregnant mice, who also prefer the familiar odour of MHC-similarmales as a sign of nesting with relatives and receiving help in nursing pupsand protection from potentially dangerous males. Criticism:

Markey et al. (2007) #1

Aim: Toinvestigate the extent to which similarity is a factor in the way people choosepartners.Participants: A large sample of young peopleProcedure: First, they asked participants to describethe psychological characteristics, values, and attitudes of their idealromantic partner, without thinking of anyone in particular. Afterwards, theywere asked to describe themselves.Findings: The way the young people described themselveswas similar to what their ideal partner looked like.Criticism:

Markey et al. (2007) (Follow-up Study)

Aim: To investigatethe extent to which similarity is a factor in the way people choose partners.Participants: 106couples who had been together for a year (212 participants)Procedure: Theyfilled out a questionnaire about their own and their partner’s characteristics.Findings: Theresult confirmed that people want partners similar to themselves. This couldexplain why they perceive their partner to be similar; but perception and actualbehavior may not always be congruent at the end of the day. Criticism: Thestudy was based on self-reports, so may lack reliability, but the results werebased on a relatively large sample, and this enhances the validity to thestudy.

Keisler and Baral (1970)

Aim: To testwhether self-esteem has an effect on partner selectionParticipants: Groupof menProcedure: Theyadministered a fake IQ test to the participants. They then gave them fictitiousscores. One group was told they had scored the highest ever seen on the exam,while the second was told their scores was so low the researchers could notaccount for the errors and were asked to do the test again in the near future.Scores were given privately. Afterwards, the individual men waited in a waitingroom for their pay for taking part in the study. During that time, a veryattractive female walked in the room. The experimenters wanted to see if theparticipants’ self-esteem affected their willingness to engage in discussionwith an attractive woman.Findings: The menwho had a self-esteem boost (high scores) engaged in conversation with thewoman mre quickly, and that they were more engaged in discussion than the menwith the low test scores.Criticism:

Zajonc (1971)

Aim: To test ifwhat is similar is more likeable than the unfamiliar.Participants:Procedure: Researchersasked participants to evaluate photos of strangers. Some of the phtos wereshown repeatedly during the experiment.Findings: Thosestrangers who were shown more frequently were rated more positively. Zajoncargues that the mere exposure effect increases a sense of trust. Criticism:~B

Matsumoto (2004)

In a conversationabout the high US divorce rates with someone from a non-western culture, theresearcher was given the response: “Thereason for this difference is quite clear. You Americans marry the person youlove; we love the person we marry.

Gupta and Singh (1992)

Researchers foundthat couples who married for love reported diminished feelings of love if theyhad been married for more than five years. Those who had arranged marriagesreported higher levels of love.”

Dion and Dion (1995)

Researchers notedthat in traditional societies, marriage is often seen as more than just theunion of two families. Whereas Americans tend to view marriage as a lifetimecompanionship between two individuals in love, people of many other culturesview marriage more as a partnership formed in order to have children and foreconomic and social support.

Levine et al.

Individualisticcountries were more likely to rate love as essential to the establishment of amarriage and to agree that the disappearance of love is sufficient reason toend a marriage. Countries with a large GDP also showed this tendency. Theyfound that divorce rates are highly correlated with the belief that thedisappearance of love warranted the dissolution of marriage.nt-)Y

Buss (1994)

Aim: To comparethe values for relationships between countries.Participants: 10,000participants from 37 culturesProcedure: Hegave participants two questionnaires regarding mate selection. Findings: 36/27countries, women rated financial prospects more important than males. In all37, women preferred older men, men preferred younger women. In 23 of thecultures, males rated chastity as being more important than women did. Bussconcluded that mate selection preferences were universal because of the degreeof agreement of sex differences in all cultures, arising from differentevolutionary selection pressures on male and female. However, some interestingdifferences were that USA ranked love first as important, Iran ranked it third,and Nigeria ranked it fourth.Criticism:

Bradbury and Fincham (1993)ps ۼ񫯹

Aim: To see theeffect of attribution to the happiness of a marriage.Participants: MarriedcouplesProcedure: Theyfollowed married couples in a 12-month longitudinal study.Findings: Theyfound that the kind of attributions made by the couple in the beginning of thestudy did predict marital satisfaction at the end of the study. Level of satisfaction with the relationshipin the beginning of the study did not predict what kind of attributions thecouple made at the end of the study. This could indicate that it is the kindsof attributions which influence the behavior of couples rather than the otherway around. Criticism:lZ*.

Flora and Segrin (2003) o the ۼ񫯹

Aim: Investigatedwell-being in relation to perception of relationship in married and datingcouples.Participants: 66young couples who had dated for at least six months, and 65 young couples whohad been married for around four years (262 participants)Procedure: Longitudinalstudy using self-reported data based on questionnaires and interviews. Theresearchers wanted to find out if the amount of common interests and activitiesas well as a desire to spend time together, was a predictor of the quality ofthe relationship. They interviewed the participants of the emotional aspects ofthe relationship; the interviews were then recorded and transcribed. After ayear, the couples were contacted again. Those who were still together wereasked to fill out a new questionnaire to get an idea of their satisfaction withthe relationship, as well as their personal well-being.Findings: None ofthe married couples had separated, but a quarter of the lovers had split up.For those who dated, the most important factor was the common interests andactivities, as well as a desire spend more time together. This was particularlytrue for men, and over all, was more important than the degree of negative andpositive feelings. For women, the best predictor of staying in the relationshipwas the quantity of their negative feelings. There Criticism:

Grafman et al. (1996)di񱱹

Aim: To examinethe relationship between frontal-lobe lesions and the presence of aggressiveand violent behavior. Participants: 57controls and 279 veterans, matched for age, education, and time in Vietnam whosuffered penetrating head injuries during their service in the warProcedure: Familyobservations and self-reports were collected, using scales and questionnairesthat assessed a rage of aggressive and violent attitudes and behaviorFindings: Theresults indicated that the patients with frontal-lobe lesions consistentlydemonstrated Violence Scale scores significantly higher than the controls.Criticism:S#'

Raine et al. (1997)etwڼ񪮹

Aim: Toinvestigate the dysfunction in localized brain areasParticipants: Murdererswho pleaded ‘not guilty by reason of insanity’Procedure: Performeda PET (positron emission tomography) study.Findings: Theyfound lower activity, measured as glucose metabolism, in the prefrontal cortexcompared to the controls. Asymmetry was found in the amygdala and the medialtemporal lobe, including the hippocampus. Generally, the murderers showedincreased right-hemisphere activity. The lower activity in the prefrontalcortex and corpus callosum indicates a problem in integrating the informationnecessary to modify behavior and control impulses. Abnormalities in thehippocampus and amygdala suggest a problem in forming and using emotionallyladen perceptions and memories. Acording to Raine, the findings cannot showthat violence is determined by biology alone. He argues that social,psychological, cultural and situational factors also play a part inpredisposing an individual to violence.gBVUCAx{

Bradshaw (2004)l>etwӼ񣮹

Aim: To examinethe link between aggression and an indivduals negative view of othersParticipants: 125male and female adolescents (mean age: 19.9) from New YorkProcedure: Self-reports.Findings: Anegative attributional style could be involved in agression and violentbehavior aggression is mediated by negatively socially biased informationprocessing. BradshawCriticism:e ScsN

Baumeister and Bushman (1998)aм񠯹

Aim: To see theeffect among narcissists if their self-esteem is threatened.Participants: NarcissistsProcedure: Theresearchers first asked participants to fill out a questionnaire to measurehigh self-esteem. One of the measures was extremely high levels of self-esteem– narcissism. Participants were then asked to write a brief essay expressiontheir opinions on abortion. Each received his or her essay back with commentsthat another participant had supposedly written. The essays were randomlyselected as good or bad comments. Participants then took part in a reaction-time test; whoever respondedmore slowly received a blast of noise, with the volume and duration set by hisor her opponent. Findings: Aggression(blasting noise) was highest among narcissists who had received insultingcriticism. Non-narcissists were significantly less aggressive, as werenarcissists who had been praised. Criticism: Laboratoryexperiment.b

Zimbardo (1969)arcissi뮹

Aim: Todemonstrate influence of a crowd.Participants: FemaleundergraduatesProcedure: Participants were asked to deliverelectric shocks to another student to aid learning. Half the participants worebulky lab coats and hoods that hid their faces. They were spoken to in groupsof four and never referred to by name. The other half wore normal clothes, weregiven large name-tags to wear, and were introduced to each other by name. Allthe participants were told something about the learner to each experiment(Honest and warm, sincere and critical)Findings: Hoodedparticipants delivered twice as many shocks, and the amount of shocks did notvary depending on the description of the learner. Participants wearingname-tags related the amount of shock to the description given. The resultsindicate that those whose indentityhad been obscured were more likely todeliver a harsher punishment. Deindividuation appears to have lowered theirsense of self-consciousness and sense of accountability for their behavior. Criticism: Artificiality.Ethical concern that participants may have been subjected to undue stress, andthat this stray may have had a long term effect on the individuals. B2

Diener et al. (1976)cr뮹

Aim: To establishif deindividuation had an effect on a child’s behavior.Participants: ChildrenProcedure: Childrenin one group were asked for their names and addresses, whereas those in anothergroup were not. The children were then encouraged to take a single sweet. Findings: Thosewho were individuated (by asking for their personal details) took than thesingle sweet in 8 per cent of the cases. Those who were deinviduated took morethan one sweet in 80 per cent of cases. This result indicates the importance ofdeindividuation on self-consciousness and feelings of responsibility. Criticism:rticipac&

Johnson and Downing (1979)an e诹

Aim: To show thatthe norms of the group become a guiding force of one’s behavior Participants: Procedure: Variationof Zimbardo’s experiment. Findings: Whenparticipants wore a Ku Klux Klan outfit, they were more likely to give strongershocks; however, when wearing a nurse’s outfit, they delivered lower levels ofshock. In other words, group identity and its social norms determined he levelof violent behavior exited.Criticism:oNormal PW

Nansel et al. (2000)gr뮹

Participants: US15,676 students aged 10-15Procedure: Reports.Findings: Foundthat 17% of students reported having been bullied ‘sometimes’ or morefrequently during the school term. About 19% reported bullying others‘sometimes’ or more often. 6 per cent reported bullying and having beenbullied. Criticism:norms p

Eley et al. (1999)ageds

Aim: To see ifthere may be a genetic factor in bullying behavior.Participants: 1500pairs of Swedish and British twinsProcedure: Findings: The researchers found that identical(monozygotic) twins were more likely than fraternal twins (dizygotic) to show aggressive antisocial behavior andthis was interpreted as an indication of the role of genes in this behaviorMale identical twins and fraternal twins were just as likely to exhibitsymptoms of non-aggressive antisocial behavior. This was taken to indicationthat the environment plays a strong role. Play with peers influences thebehavior of both boys and girls that this influence could be different for eachmember of a twin pair. Criticism:Ot1rJl:

Lieu and Raine (2004)ds

Aim: Toinvestigate the effects of malnutrition on childrenParticipants: 1000children in Mauritius, an island in the Indian Ocean ; with different ethnicbackgroundsProcedure: Longitudinalstudy over 14 years. The research focused on nutrition at age three and thenlooked for vitamin, protein, and mineral deficiency. The children’s cognitivelevel was also measured and potential risk factors such as income, health, andoccupation, and living conditions of parents were recorded at base rate. Theresearchers investigated how the children were behaving in school and at homebased on either teacher or parent evaluations. They also used a control group whodid not suffer from malnutrition. Findings: Therewas a major increase in aggressive behavior in children suffering from malnutrition;50% increase in violent and antisocial behavior at 17. Poor nutrition couldalso influence intelligence and lead to antisocial behavior later. Theresearchers suggest that malnutrition in the first years of life may beresponsible for antisocial and aggressive behavior throughout childhood andlate adolescence. Criticism:ea

Dodge (1980) MsoNor|

Aim: To see ifaggressive children have difficulty interpreting the intentions of classmatesParticipants: Aggressiveand non-aggressive boysProcedure: Gavethem a hypothetical story to read. Each boy imagined that a classmate spilled alunch tray all over his desk. Dodge asked them about the classmate’sintentions, and how they would respond if this really happened to them. Findings: Theaggressive boys read hostile intent into the story 50 % more frequently thanthe others, and the response was based more often on aggressive action. Criticism:e int%

Delville (2002)

Aim: To observethe effects of bullying on the health and brain development of adolescenthamsters.Participants: AdolescenthamstersProcedure: In hisexperiment, male pubescent hamsters were placed for an hour a day, for twoweeks, into an adult hamster’s cage. The older hamsters responded withhostility to the adolescent males, biting and chasing them. A control group ofadolescent male hamsters were simply placed in an empty, unfamiliar cage forone hour a day. Findings: Bothenvironments elicited stress reactions in the young hamsters, but long-termeffects of the two kinds of stress were surprisingly dissimilar.Criticism:lent a{(

Carney and Hazler (2007) J

Aim: To see therole of bullying on cortisol levels in humansParticipants: 94sixth-grade students, between the ages 9-14Procedure: Scientistsmeasured the cortisol levels in the saliva. They also asked them to fill out aquestionnaire on their experience of being bullied or watching someone beingbulled, plus additional measures of anxiety and trauma. Cortisol levels weremeasured first thing in the morning and just before lunchtime. Lunchtime waschosen because it is one of the less supervised times of the day, whenadolescents are more likely to be bullied or observe someone being bullied. Findings:Criticism:7tEZs

Kliewer et al. (2004)ls

Aim: To see therelationship between victims’ perceptions of control over their bullingexperience and the extent of long-term difficulties they experience as a resultof bullying Participants: Spanishcollege studentsProcedure: Findings: Suggeststhat there is a direct relationship between victims’ perceptions of controlover their bullying experience and the extent of long-term difficulties theyexperience as a result of bullying. Bullied students who believed they wereable to influence and/or escape their bullies reported fewer negative long-termeffects from having been bullied than did students, who felt helpless toinfluence their situation while it was happening. Percept of control was key inthis study, as no relationship was found between the various ways studentscoped with being bullied and how they turned out. Criticism:ja

Snyder (2003)/r

Aim: Participants: 266children from kindergarten to elementary schoolProcedure: Theresearchers recorded instances of aggression and victimization. Beingaggressive may be a way to avoid bullying were more likely to become depressed and demonstrateantisocial behaviors. Being aggressive may be a way to avid bullying for awhile but in the long term increases the risk of being victimized by peers.Snyder also found that antisocial behavior made girls into a target forbullying in both for the short and long term. Findings: Foundthat boys who experienced bullying were more likely to become depressed anddemonstrate antisocial behaviors. Criticism:vKAr7

Feshbach and Feshbach (1982)V

Aim: Examiningthe effects of teaching students to processParticipants: Juniorschool childrenProcedure: Researcherstrained the participants to imagine how they would feel in other children’scircumstances, to recognize the feelings of others, and to try and share theiremotions.Findings: Comparedwith children in control groups, the children who engaged in this empathytraining were much less aggressive in everyday playground activities. Criticism:bm^

Vreeman (2006)r

Aim: Investigatingthe effects of reducing bullying through a ‘whole school’ approachParticipants: StudentsProcedure: Triedto reduce violence in school through a ‘whole school’ approach, which is avariety of methods designed to assist the childrenFindings: Bullyingcan be curbed, but that so many common methods of dealing with the problem,such as classroom discussions, role-playing or detention, are ineffective.Whole-school interventions, involving teachers, administrators, and socialworkers committed to culture change, are the most effective, and are especiallyeffective throughout high school. Criticism:/rEoi