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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a map?
a 2D or flat-scale model of the real world
what is cartography?
the science of making maps
what were the earliest maps used for?
as reference tools — simple navigation devices designed to show a traveler how to get from point A to point B
what are contemporary maps used for?
used by geographers primarily for displaying geographic info and for offering geographic explanation
what is scale?
the relationship between map unites and the actual distance on earth
what is a written scale?
where units are expressed using words, for example, "1 centimeter equals 1 kilometer"
what is a graphic scale?
a scale bar showing the distance represented on earth's surface
what is the prime meridian?
the 0 degree line in Greenwich, England
what is the equator?
the line of latitude halfway between the poles
what is a parallel?
a latitude line, because all latitude lines are parallel to the equator
what parallel has the greatest circumference and is the baseline for measuring latitude?
the equator
what line of longitude does the International Date Line follow?
the 180 degrees longitude line
what is remote sensing?
the acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting Earth or from airplanes
what does GPS stand for?
global position system
what does GIS stand for
geographic information system
what does mashup refer to
the practice of overlaying data from one source on top of one of the mapping services
what is a toponym
a place name
what is site?
the physical characteristics of a place
what are some important site characteristics?
climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, latitude, and elevation
what is situation?
situation describes a place in terms of its location relative to other places
what is a region?
an area of earth defined by one or more distinctive characteristics
what is cultural landscape?
the total sum of cultural, economic, and environmental forces combined to make distinctive landscapes across earth
what is a formal region?
a region with a predominant or universal characteristic, and commonly have well-defined boundaries
what does a formal region share, feature-wise?
cultural value such as a common language, or an environmental property such as climate. The selected characteristic is present throughout the region.
what isa functional region
an area of use or influence of some feature
how is a functional region like in an area?
it's strong and organized at it's node/focal point but decreases over distance (like a target)
what is a vernacular region?
a mental conception of a place as belonging to a common region for complex cultural reasons/a place people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
what is a mental map?
an internal representation of a portion of earth's surface; depicts what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in it and where it's located
what is culture?
a body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group
what is globalization a result of?
increasing connections between places and the rapid movement of goods and information around the world
what is a transnational corporation?
corporations that conduct research, operate factories, and sell products in many countries, not just where its headquarters and principle shareholders are located
what is space?
the physical gap or interval between two objects
what is distribution?
the arrangement of a feature in space
what is density?
the frequency with which something occurs in space
what is concentration?
the extent of a feature's spread over space
if objects in an area are close together they are _____
if objects in an area are far apart they are ________
what is pattern?
the term pattern describes whether features are arranged along geometric or other predictable arrangements
what does connection refer to?
the relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
what does diffusion refer to?
the spread of anything from a cultural trait, people, things, or ideas from one point of origin
what is a hearth?
a place from which an innovation originates
what is relocation diffusion?
the spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another
what is expansion diffusion?
the spread of a feature from one place to another in an additive process
what is distance decay?
when contact diminishes with increasing distance and eventually disappears
what is space-time compression?
the reduction in time it takes for something to reach another place
what is a network?
a chain of communication that connects places
what are the core regions?
North America, Europe, and Japan
what are the periphery regions?
Africa, Asia, and Latin America
what is uneven development?
the increasing gap in economic conditions between regions in the core and periphery
what is a resource?
a substance in the environment that is useful to people, economically and technologically feasible to access, and socially acceptable to use
what is a renewable resource?
a resource produced in nature more rapidly than it is consumed by humans
what is a non renewable resource?
a resource produced in nature more slowly than it is consumed by humans
what is sustainability?
the use of earth's renewable and nonrenewable natural resources in ways that ensure resource availability in the future
what 3 pillars does sustainability rest on?
environment, economy, and society
what is conservation?
the sustainable use and management of earth's natural resources to meet human needs such as food, medicine, and recreation
what is preservation?
the maintenance of resources in their present condition with as little human impact as possible. It does not regard nature as a resource for human use.
what is a biotic system composed of?
living organisms
what is an abiotic system composed of?
nonliving or inorganic matter
what is the atmosphere?
a thin layer of gases surrounding earth
what is the hydrosphere?
all the water on or near earth's surface
what is the lithosphere?
earth's crust and a portion of upper mantle directly above the crust
what is the biosphere?
all living organisms on earth, including plants and animals, as well as microorganisms
what is an ecosystem?
a group of living organism and abiotic spheres with which they interact
what is ecology?
the scientific study of ecosystems
what is cultural ecology?
the geographic study of human-enviromental relationships
what does environmental determinism state?
physical environment causes social interaction
what is possibilism?
the physical environment may limit some human actions, but humans have the ability to modify their environment
what is a polder?
a piece of land created by draining water from an area