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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Maladaptive Behaviors

A deviation from social norms or behavior that interferes with optimal functioning and growth of individual and ultimately society

Five views of the human mind and nature that reveal the psychological perspective are

1. Psychoanalytic

2. Behavioristic

3. Humanistic

4. Existential

5. Interpersonal

Community Systems

System Maladaptive Outputs

agency decisions and staff behaviors are detrimental to individual or family adaption

Community Systems

Dysfunctional Process

Ineffective management systems

inadequate programming

lack of staff training programs stem from interpersonal staff programs

major focus of interventions is on developing interagency cooperation in producing ongoing support to weak families

Community Systems-examples of how therapist serves as go-betweens for two feuding agencies to improve handling of case to be consistent and supportive

therapist works with child welfare workers to support keeping a child in the home.

therapist works with community agencies to provoke family crisis so that intervention can occur.

(Protective Services, Justice system, school system)

This crisis can get parents to take action for the betterment of the family

Crisis Intervention Model steps

Step 1 Listen-establish therapeutic relationship, identify precipitating problems, explore client's emotions.

Step 2 Assessment-determine severity of crisis, suicide/homicide assessment, identify past coping skills, strengths, supportive resources,

Step 3 Treatment Plan-create contract or sign treatment plan, identify referral resources, if major crisis have only short-term objectives

Step 4 Termination-review progress on Tx plan, plan for expanding resources and support systems, schedule a follow-up session

Crisis Intervention model is used in covering what types of cases?

Date rape, school violence, substance abuse, adolescent suicide, marital abuse, HIV positive, Hospital intensive care clients

In treatment planning what three basic approaches are used?

Be non-directive at the start-let patient tell you why he/she has come to you

Be Collaborative-work together on a joint plan

Be directive-if person does not or will not make a plan

Milestones of Development

1-3 months

infant gains ability to raise his/her chin from ground and can turn his/her head side to side and play with hands and fingers

Milestones of Development

4-6 months

Baby rolls over

At 5 months-baby reaches and grasps while sitting on someone's lap

At 6 months-baby sits alone and may stand with support

Between 5-9 months- first teeth appear

Milestones of Development

7-9 Months

Coordination improves. Creeping & Crawling begins between 8-9 months

Milestones of Development

10-12 months

child pulls him/herself up to standing position with furniture and walks with help

Milestones of Development

15 months-baby stands alone and gains ability to walk. Throws things

18 months-toddler can walk sideways and backwards

2 years-child can walk with steady gait, jumps, runs in controlled way and climb stairs with help

3 years-usually toilet trained, child dresses and undresses self, can scribble

4 years-child can print first name, preference for right/left hand

5 years-youngster can coordinates movement to music

Milestones of Development

Middle childhood-Girls

gender differences appear. More physically mature than boys of same age. Superior skills in flexibility, agility and balance.

Milestones of Development

Middle childhood-Girls

Early Maturation works against girls resulting in

lowered self-concept

dissatisfaction with physical development

sexual precociousness

increased potential for drug and alcohol abuse

Late maturing girls tend to be dissatisfied with physical appearance and dislike being treated as younger than they are

Milestones of Development

Middle childhood-Boys

Boys are stonger than girls, perform better in activiteis that require gross motor movement, early maturation improves popularity and adjustment. Late maturing boys lack confidence, perform attention seeking behaviors, are considered childish

Factors that contribute to good development

high socioeconomic status, 2 parent family, little visible disfigurement and healthy parental adjustment

Importance of Birth Order-Alfred Adler

Oldest child- has to share parent's attention. If poor transition will become insecure & dislike people. If proper transition will be responsible, dependable, hard working, and achievment oriented. Acquires language earlier, better grades, higher scores on IQ, more achievement-oriented and socially responsible. later born children are less cautious, have better peer relationships, and are more confident in social situations. Receive more attention from parents, tend to be spoiled

Importance of Birth Order-Alfred Adler

Second child- has to share attention and competes with older siblings, therefore, more ambitious. Later behavior-rivalry and competition. If second of only two then often opposite of first child ,competitive.

Importance of Birth Order-Alfred Adler

Middle child-often feels left out and develops a "poor me" attitude. often feels squeezed out.

Importance of Birth Order-Alfred Adler

Youngest- can be spoiled, easily influenced by others and often develops in directions not thought about by others. Often most liked, more pampered, " baby", tends to be more creative , rebellious, revolutionary, avant-garde. Acts like a baby and is treated accordingly

Importance of Birth Order-Alfred Adler

Only child-being accustomed to center stage, may not learn to share and cooperate. relate and deal well with adults

Difference of attachment between psychoanalytical theorists and learning theorist

psychoanalytic theory defines attachment in terms of satisfaction of oral needs, learning theorists add the aspect of reinforcement

Harry Harlow & Attachment theory

research with monkeys and need for contact comfort important in early development of attachment theory

Critical periods in attachment theory

Biological predisposition humans have increases likelihood of forming attachments. Infant programmed to cry and smile, adult programmed to respond to the infant During first few month's of child's life such attachments are indiscriminant. After 6 or 7 months attachement becomes directed to caregivers.

Signs of attachment include

selective social smile beginning at 6 months and emergence of stranger anxiety and separation anxiety

Stranger anxiety

very anxious and fearful of strangers at 6 months, typically disappears around age 2

Separation anxiety-

severe distress when separated from primary caregivers at 6-8 months, peaks in intensity at 14-18 months, continues until about age 2 then diminishes

Patterns of Attachment

Secure attachment

Insecure (Anxious/Ambivalent) Attachment

Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment

Secure Attachment

mildly upset about mother's absence and actively seeks contact with her when she returns. Mothers of these infants are emotionally sensitive and responsive

Insecure(Anxious/Ambivalent) Attachment

infant becomes very disturbed when left alone with stranger but is ambivalent to the mother's return and may resist attempts at physical contact. mothers of these infants are moody & inconsistent of caretaking.

Insecure(Anxious/Avoidant) Attachment

child shows little distress when mother leaves and ignores her when she returns. Mothers of these infants are impatient and unresponsive or provide child with too much stimulation

Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment

signs of fearing their caretakers, confused facial expressions, or variety of other disorganized attachment behaviors. 80% of these infants who have been mistreated by caregivers exhibit this pattern

Stages of Prolonged Separation(Bowlby)

Protest-crying, kicking, screaming

Despair-gives up hope and withdraws

Detachment-seems less unhappy, accepts attention from others and may act with disinterest when visited by caregiver

Object-Relations Theory

places emphasis on early development as a decisive factor influencing later development, this theory focuses on symbiosis, seperation, differentiation, and integration. Developed initially by Margaret Mahler.

Mahler's Three Stages of Development

1. Autistic(newborn to 1 month

2. Symbiosis (fusion with mother)

3. Separation-Individuation-Differentiation, practicing motor skills, rapprochment, constancy of self and object

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

(Low to high)

Physiological(food, shelter)