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49 Cards in this Set

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the branch of science concerned with the composition and properties of material substances, including their abilities to change into other substances.
anything that takes up space and has mass, made up of atoms.
a unit of matter that cannot be further broken down by chemical means; it is composed of subatomic particles, which inclue proteins, neutrons, and electrons.
any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means.
atoms that have the same number of proteins but different number of neutrons.
isotopes that are unstable and spontaneously decay,emitting radiation in the form of gamma rays and alpha and beta particles.
a molecule that contains two or more different elements.
covalent bond
a chemical bond formed when outer shell electrons are shared between atoms.
a chemical structure composed of atoms held together by covalent bonds.
an atom or group of atoms that carries an electric charge resulting from the loss or gain of electrons.
ionic bond
a chemical bond that results from the mutual attraction of oppositely charged ions.
hydrogen bond
a weak chemical bond formed between a partially positively charged hydrogen atom in a molecule and a partially negatively charged atom in another molecule or in another region of the same molecule.
any substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution.
any substance that reduces the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution.
pH scale
a scale for measuring the concentration of hydrogen ions. The scale ranges from to 14, with a pH of 7 being neutral, a pH of less than 7 being acidic, and a pH of greater than 7, basic.
measure of hydrogen ion concentration
a substance that prevents dramatic changes in pH by removing excess hydrogen ions from solution when concentrations increase and adding hydrogen ions when concentrations decrease.
a giant molecule of life such as a nucleic acid, protein, or polysaccharides. is formed by the joining together of smaller molecules.
a large molecule formed by the joining together of many smaller molecules of the same general type (monomers).
a small molecule that joins with identical molecules to for a polymer.
dehydration synthesis
the process by which polymers are formed. monomers are linked together through the removal of a water molecule.
the process by which polymers are broken apart by the addition of water.
an organic molecule that provides fuel fo rht ehuman body. which we know as sugars and starches, can be classified by size into the monsaccharides, disaccharides, and the polysaccharides.
the smallest molecular unit of a carbohydrate, known as simply sugars.
a molecule formed when two monosaccharides covalently bond to each other through dehydration synthesis. known as a double sugar.
a complex carbohydrate formed when large numbers of monosaccharides (mostly glucose) join together to form a long chain through dehydration synthesis. most store energy or provide structure.
the storage of polysaccharide in plants.
the storage of polysaccharide in animals.
a structural polysaccharide found in the cell walls of plants. humans lack enzymes necessary to digest it, and thus it passes unchanged through our digestive tract. although it has no value as a nutrient, it is an important form of dietary fiber known to facilitate the passages of feces through the large intestines.
a compound, such as a triglyceride, phospholipid, or steroid, that does not dissolve in water.
the lipids composed of one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids. they are known as fats when solid and oils when liquid.
an important component of cell membranes. it has a non polar "water-fearing" tail (made up of fatty acids) and a polar "water-loving" head (containing an R group, glycerol, and phosphate.)
a lipid, such as cholesterol, consisting of four carbon rings with functional groups attached.
the macromolecules composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds the function sof proteins include structural support, transport, movement, and regulation of chemical reactions.
amino acid
the building blocks of proteins consisting of a central carbon atom bound to a hydrogen atom, an amino group, a carboxyl group and a side chain designated by the letter R. There are 20 important to human life; some can be synthesized by our bodies (nonessential) and some cannot be synthesized and must be obtained from the foods we eat (essential).
a chain containing only a few amino acids.
a chain containing 10 or more amino acids.
primary structure
the precise sequence of amino acids of a protein. this sequence, determined by the genes, dictates a protein's structure and function.
secondary structure
the bending and folding of the chain of amino acids of a protein to produce shapes such as coils, spirals, and pleated sheets. these shapes form as a result of hydrogen bonding between different parts of the polypeptide chain.
tertiary structure
the three-dimensional shape of proteins formed by hydrogen, ionic, and covalent bonds between different side chains.
the process by which changes in teh environment of protein, such as increased heat of changes in pH, cause it to unravel and lose its three-dimensional shape. Change in the shape of a protein results in loss of function.
quaternary structure
the shape of an aggregate protein. it is determined by the mutually attractive forces between protein's subunits.
a substance (usually a protein, but sometimes an RNA molecule)
that speeds up chemical reactions without being consumed in the process.
active site
a specific location on an enzyme where the substrate binds.
enzyme-substrate complex
a complex formed when a substrate binds to an enzyme at the active site.
deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA)
the molecular basis of genetic inheritance in all cells and some viruses. a category of nucleic acids that usually consists of a double helix of two nucleotide strands. the sequence of nucleotides carries the instructions for assembling proteins.
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
a single-stranded nucleic acid that contains ribose (a five-carbon sugar, phosphate, adenine, uracil, cytosine, or guanine. It plays a variety of roles in protein synthesis.
a subunit of DNA composed of one five-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), one phosphate group, and one of five nitrogen-containing bases. They are the building blocks of nucleic acids.
adenosine triphosphate
a nucleotide that consists of the sugar ribose, the base adenine, and three phosphate groups. it is the energy currency of all living cells.