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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Anti-slavery squadron

- 2 ship fleet that failed to enforce abolition (1818)

- needed "proof" for detainment

- U.S. refused contribution until 1842

American colonization society

- organization that supported the colonization of freed African Americans (1816)

- appealed to U.S. government

- Henry Clay's "Unique Solution"; deemed repatriation unpopular in general public's eyes

- granted $100,000 for land in West Africa (1819)

Peyton Skipworth

- former slave of John Cocke who settled in Liberia (1834)

- complained a lot about economic challenges

- explained how people who succeed in Liberia used slave labor

"Legitimate" Trade

- British trade with African societies to fuel needs for Industrial Revolution

- need for raw materials (palm oil, gum arabic, peanuts, rubber)


- drug (an extract of cinchona bark) that protects and provides a cure for malaria

- used in West Africa ("White Man's Grave)

- reduced mortality rates during 1800's

The Berlin Conference

- conference where European colonial powers partitioned Africa (1884-1885)

- rules for Africa's annexation

a) abolish slavery

b) "effective occupation" needed

c) Congo = "Free state"


- state in central Ghana (1680-1874)

- captured and exported slaves

- did not welcome British abolition and had no interest in legitimate trade with Britain

Cash Crops

- basics of the colonial economy

- relatively cheap to produce

- enables taxation

- creates dependency from farmers (transportation networks)


- set of laws creating inferior legal status for French African natives (1887-1944)

- compulsory labor for cash crops

- entailed a labor based tax

Roger Casement's Report

- rubber in Congo Free State (1904)

- rubber is running out

- people given quotas or tasks (punishments)

- largely parallels slavery

Direct Rule

- style of colonial administration that placed Africans under the direct authority of European administrators

- large European presence in Africa (officials enforcing law)

- assimilation

Evolues (citizens)

Indigenes (subjects)

F.D. Lugard

- British colonial administrator who served in both Uganda and Nigeria

- author of "Dual Mandate in Tropical Africa", believed to be textbook of British indirect rule

Panama Canal

- costed U.S. $375 million to build (1904-1914)

- about 200,000 Caribbean workers

- about 80% hospitalized in 1906

- about 28,000 died (5%)

- limits of sharecropping

The Great Migration

- migration of 1.6 million African Americans from the South to northern parts of the U.S. (1910-1930)

- resulted in Chicago Race Riot (1919)

African Association

- part of Pan-African intellectual movement (1897)

- Henry Sylvester Williams (lawyer) founded the association

- "promote and protect interests of all subjects claiming African decent"

- Pan Africanist Conference (1900)

Marcus Garvey

- Jamaican political leader (1887 -1940) who founded Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in 1914

- Economic and political advancement (more direct and demanding)

- Reasserting identity (denounces white integration)

- "Black is beautiful"

W.E.B. Du Bois

- African-American activist and African nationalist (1868-1963)

- wrote "Talented Tenth" (1903)

- met in 1905 for the Niagara Movement (later known as the NAACP)

- organized first Pan-African Congress in Paris (1919)

Waruhiu Itote

- known as "General China" (1922-1993)

- key leader in Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya

- part of the Land and Freedom Army

Kwame Nkrumah

- nationalist and first president of independent Ghana (1957)

- leading advocate of pan-African unity

- non-violence and positive action

Martin Luther King Jr.

- Baptist minister in Montgomery, Alabama (1929-1968)

- led Montgomery Bus Boycott (1956)

- traveled to Ghana (1957)

- gave "I have a dream" speech (1963)

Jomo Kenyatta

- Kenyan nationalist and first president of independent Kenya (1963)

- president of Kenyan African Union (1947)

- imprisoned for being a part of Mau Mau Society (1952-1959)

"Mau Mau"

- revolt in Kenya during 1940's and 1950's that sought to drive European settlers and their employees from lands previously held by Africans

- Jomo Kenyatta and Waruhiu Itote were key leaders

Malcolm X

- American human rights activist (1925-1965)

- joined Nation of Islam (1948)

- traveled to Eygpt, Nigeria and Ghana (1959)

- gave "Ballot or Bullet" speech (1964)

- called for self identity and retrieval for what was lost (reclamation)

Alex Haley

- American writer born in Ithaca, NY (1921-1992)

- member of U.S. Coast Guard (1939-1959)

- worked for Reader's Digest and Playboy

- wrote Autobiography of Malcolm X (1965)

- wrote "Roots: The Saga an American Family" (1976)

"Rumble in the Jungle"

- boxing match between Muhammad Ali (Cassius Clay) and George Foreman (1974)

- took place in Kinshasa, Zaire

- described as "Expose of Black Achievement"

- put on by Don King (promoter) & Mobutu Sese Seko (dictator)

Muhammad Ali

- American boxer formerly known as Cassius Clay (1942-present)

- Olympic Gold (1960)

- Heavyweight title (1964)

- Indictment/Ban (refusal to join armed forces) (1967)