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35 Cards in this Set

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WCTU- Women's Christian Temperance Union
Womens organization whose members visited schools to educate the children about the evils of alcohol, addressed prisoners, and blanketed men's meetings with literature
Execustion, usually by a mob, without a trial
A system of racial control that separated the races, initially bu custom but increasingly by law during and after Reconstruction
The use of legal means to bar individuals or groups from voting
Plessy v Ferguson
Supreme Court decision holding that Louisiana's railroad segregation law did not violate the constitution as long as the railroads or that state provided equal accommodations.
Jim Crow Laws
Segregation laws that became widespread in the South during the 1890s
Poll taxes
Taxes imposed on voters as a requirement for voting
Grandfather Clause
Rule that required potential voters to demonstrate that their grandfathers had been eligible to vote; used in some southern states after 1890 to limit the black electorate.
Atlanta Compromise
Booker T Washington's policy accepting segregation and disfranchisement for African Americans in exchange for white assistance in education and job training
NAACP- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Interracial organization co-founded by W.E.B. DuBois in 1910 dedicated to restoring African American political and social rights
Gilded Age
Term applied to the late nineteenth century America that refers to the shallow display and worship of wealth characteristic of that period
Vertical Integration
the consolidation of numerous production functions, from the extraction of the raw materials to the distribution and marketing of the finished products, under the direction of one firm
Horizontal Integration
The merger of competitors in the same industry
Four to six story residential dwellings, once common in New York, built on tiny lots without regard to providing ventilation or light
Hull House
Chicago settlement house that became part of a broader neighborhood revitalization project let by Jane Addams
Gospel of Wealth
Thesis that hard work and perseverance lead to wealth, implying that poverty is a character flaw
Social Darwinism
The application of Charles Darwin's theory of biological evolution to society, holding that the fittest and wealthiest survive, the weak and the poor perish, and government action is unable to alter this "natural" process
Great Uprising
Unsuccessful railroad strike of 1877 to protest wage cuts and the use of federal troops against strikers; the first nationwide work stoppage in American History
Knights of Labor
Labor unions founded in 1869 that included skilled and unskilled workers irrespective of race of gender
AFL- American Federation of Labor
Union formed in 1886 that organized skilled workers along craft lines and emphasized a few workplace issues rather then a broad social program
collective bargaining
representatives of a union negotiating with management on behalf of all members
Government directed attacks against Jewish citizens, property and villages in tsarist Russia beginning in the 1880s; a primary reason for the Russian Jewish migration to the US
Chain Migration
Process common to many immigrant groups whereby one family member brings over other family members, who in turn bring other relatives and friends and occasionally entire villages
Favoring the intrests and culture of native-born inhabitants over those of immigrants
Great migration
The mass movement of African Americans from the rural south the the urban north
Sand Creek Massacre
the near annihilation in 1864 of Black Kettle's Cheyenne band by Colorado troops under Colonel John Chivington's orders to "kill and scalp all, big and little"
Second Treaty of Fort Laramie
The treaty aclmowledging US defeat in the Great Sioux War in 1868 and supposedly guaranteeing the Sioux perpetual land and hunting rights in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana
Battle of Little Big Hotn
Battle in which Colonel George A Custer and the Seventh Cavalry were defreated by the Sioux and Cheyennes under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse in Montana in 1876
Wounded Knee Massacre
The US Army's brutal winter massacre in 1890 of at least 200 Sioux men, women, and children as mart of the governments assault on the tribe's Ghost Dance religion
Dawes Act
An 1887 law terminating tribal ownership of land and allotting some parcels of land to individual indians with the remainder opened for white settlement
Chilsom Trail
The route follower by Texas cattle raisers driving their herds north to markets at Kansas railheads
Prohibition Party
A venerable third party still in existance that has persistently campaigned for the abolition of alcohol but also has introduced many important reform ideas into American Politics
Greenback Party
A third party of the 1870s and 1880s that garnered temprary support by advocating currency inflation to expand the economy and assist debtors
Populist Party
A major third party of the 1890s, formed on the basis of the Southern Farmers' Alliance and other organizations, mounting electoral challanges against Democrats in the South and the Republicans in the West
Granger Laws
State laws enacte in the Midwest in the 1870s that regulated rates charged by railroads, grain elevator operators, and other middlemen