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10 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Fusion/Jazz Rock

Extensive use of electronic instrument: electric piano (Fender Rhodes), synthesizers

Pieces range from simple melodies with vamps and open forms to complex through-composed, sectionalized compositions

Brought rhythmic complexities to the rock style- not only re individual melodic lines, but in terms of mixed and odd meters

Use of "extended-harmony" chords, such as 9th, 11th, and 13th chords, and other alteration- more than the plain triads and 7th chords of traditional rock

Interest in non western musical concepts (world music) and 20th century classical composers

Incorporated melodic blue lines to the rock style

Instrumentation includes saxophone, trumpet and trombone


Most important element: the rhythmic groove, especially between the bass and the drums

Typical instrumentation: bass, drums, guitar, electric keyboards, horns

Minimalism: simple two- and four-bar repeating phrases that create a trance-like effect

The rawest and earthiest form of black pop to date

Vocalists employ shrieks, screams, grunts, etc.; group vocal charts common

Soft Soul (TSOP)

Highly produced and orchestrated; smooth vocals

Medium tempo dance tune; slow, torch romantic ballads

Predecessor to disco and more recent romantic soul styles

Center of development: Philadelphia

Great commercial and crossover appeal


Pop oriented dance music whose most important characteristic is the relentless pounding emphasis on every beat

Produced in the studio using synthesizers and drum machine

Lush string orchestration, predominant use of percussion instruments, vocal charts


Combines influences from Jamaican folk (mento), American R&B, Afro-Caribbean music

Intertwined patterns played by the bass, drums, and guitar known as "riddim"

Lyrics often refer to social injustices, political dissent, racism

Identification with Rastafarian movement


Raw, angry, nihilistic; characterized by a do-it-yourself attitude

Represented a rebellion against post-60s rock and against society in general

Music was simple, repetitive and louder than mainstream rock; rejected long, technically demanding instrumental solos

Attitude was one of anger, frustration and violence, anti-government, and anti-society

Counter culture associated with clothing styles, body pins, etc.

New Wave

A post-punk style with commercial pop sensibilities

Utilizers influences from R&G, reggae, techo-pop

Synthesizers frequently used


Punk influences, both in music and in attitude

Slow, plodding tempos

Simple chord progressions

Avoidance of virtuosity, pretension or posturing

Star-stop dynamics

Lyrics are often of dark and murky themes, sung in a plaintive, lamenting manner

Accompanying fashion included plaid flannel shirts, ripped jeans, stocking caps and mountain boots


Rhythmic and rhyming spoken lyrics with rhythmic accompaniment heavily influenced by funk and disco

Use of sampled sounds and pieces of existing songs that are repeated to create a minimalist, hypnotic effect

Early rap (old school) included the use of scratching and back spinning of turntables to create percussive effects

Often has a shuffle or swing beat, with heavy accent on the backbeat (beats two and four)

Gangsta Rap

Lyrics use first-person accounting of gang-related themes that include violence, rage, and sexual degradation.

Hard-Hitting, angry vocal delivery

Guns, sirens, and other urban effects often used