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10 Cards in this Set

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Fusion/Jazz Rock

Extensive use of electronic instrument: electric piano (Fender Rhodes), synthesizers

Pieces range from simple melodies with vamps and open forms to complex through-composed, sectionalized compositions


Brought rhythmic complexities to the rock style- not only re individual melodic lines, but in terms of mixed and odd meters


Use of "extended-harmony" chords, such as 9th, 11th, and 13th chords, and other alteration- more than the plain triads and 7th chords of traditional rock


Interest in non western musical concepts (world music) and 20th century classical composers


Incorporated melodic blue lines to the rock style


Instrumentation includes saxophone, trumpet and trombone

Funk

Most important element: the rhythmic groove, especially between the bass and the drums

Typical instrumentation: bass, drums, guitar, electric keyboards, horns


Minimalism: simple two- and four-bar repeating phrases that create a trance-like effect


The rawest and earthiest form of black pop to date


Vocalists employ shrieks, screams, grunts, etc.; group vocal charts common

Soft Soul (TSOP)

Highly produced and orchestrated; smooth vocals

Medium tempo dance tune; slow, torch romantic ballads


Predecessor to disco and more recent romantic soul styles


Center of development: Philadelphia


Great commercial and crossover appeal

Disco

Pop oriented dance music whose most important characteristic is the relentless pounding emphasis on every beat

Produced in the studio using synthesizers and drum machine


Lush string orchestration, predominant use of percussion instruments, vocal charts

Reggae

Combines influences from Jamaican folk (mento), American R&B, Afro-Caribbean music

Intertwined patterns played by the bass, drums, and guitar known as "riddim"


Lyrics often refer to social injustices, political dissent, racism


Identification with Rastafarian movement

Punk

Raw, angry, nihilistic; characterized by a do-it-yourself attitude

Represented a rebellion against post-60s rock and against society in general


Music was simple, repetitive and louder than mainstream rock; rejected long, technically demanding instrumental solos


Attitude was one of anger, frustration and violence, anti-government, and anti-society


Counter culture associated with clothing styles, body pins, etc.

New Wave

A post-punk style with commercial pop sensibilities

Utilizers influences from R&G, reggae, techo-pop


Synthesizers frequently used

Grunge

Punk influences, both in music and in attitude

Slow, plodding tempos


Simple chord progressions


Avoidance of virtuosity, pretension or posturing


Star-stop dynamics


Lyrics are often of dark and murky themes, sung in a plaintive, lamenting manner


Accompanying fashion included plaid flannel shirts, ripped jeans, stocking caps and mountain boots

Rap

Rhythmic and rhyming spoken lyrics with rhythmic accompaniment heavily influenced by funk and disco

Use of sampled sounds and pieces of existing songs that are repeated to create a minimalist, hypnotic effect


Early rap (old school) included the use of scratching and back spinning of turntables to create percussive effects


Often has a shuffle or swing beat, with heavy accent on the backbeat (beats two and four)

Gangsta Rap

Lyrics use first-person accounting of gang-related themes that include violence, rage, and sexual degradation.


Hard-Hitting, angry vocal delivery


Guns, sirens, and other urban effects often used