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20 Cards in this Set

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Hitlers actions

1933- Took Germany out if the League


Began rearming Germany



1934- Tried to take over Austria but Mussolini stopped him



1935- Held rearmament rally in Germany



1936- Brought back conscription,


Sent German troops into the Rhineland


Anticommunist pact with Japan



1937- Tried out new weapons in Spanish Civil War


Anti communist alliance with Italy



1938- Took over Austria and sudetenland



1939- Invaded Rest of Czechoslovakia


Invade Poland

Hitlers 7 Aims in Foreign policy

Rid world of communism



Reach out for lebensraum so retrieving lost land from treaty and join up with Austria while expanding eastwards



Racially cleanse the Reich



Rip up and reverse the Treaty of Versailles



Restore German Pride



Rearm



Reunite German Speakers

Rearmament 1933

As soon as he comes into power as Chancellor.


Brought solution to unemployment, and got the party support as it broke the ToV which was hated by everyone.


Hitler knew that Britain believed the ToV was harsh so guessed they wouldn't attack. And more German forces meant more protection against communism.



At the Disarmament Conference in Geneva 1932-34, Hitler said that he wouldn't Rearm of withing 5 years other nations had destroyed their arms. In June 33, British Disarmament plan rejected, and Hitler withdrew in October and took Germany out the league



1934- signs non aggression pact with Poland so no force to settle disputes and gave him time, space and a weakened alliance between Poland and enemy France.



March 1935- reintroduced conscription and wasn't challenged



Many nations used the army to combat employment so the Disarmament conference collapsed



1935 - Anglo German Naval Agreement signed so they could increase navy size to 35% of the British navy, which worsened French British relations

Return of the Saar 1935

Region of Germany ran by the league from 1919


Promised a plebiscite, held in 1935


Vote was an overwhelming 90% in favour


Legal and under the terms of the ToV, it returned to Germany and boosted Hitlers morale

Remilitarisation of the Rhineland

March 1936


First big risk


It was one of the main ToV terms and was accepted as part of the Locarno Treaties of 1925


If France acted against then he would have had to withdraw and he would have faced complete humiliation


He'd have list all support if it failed since members if the army were already unsure about him and we're planning a coup.


Germans would have been no match for the French troops.



Events


- France had just signed the Franco Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance to protect each other against Germany


- Hitler saw this as encirclement and used it as a pretext to be able to place troops in his own frontier against the French


- He knew Britain wouldn't intervene, it was just the French, so they had orders to pull out if the French retaliated


- Attention of League was at Abyssinia, so they tried to use Moral Condemnation on him but did nothing else


- The French were close to a new election and no politician was willing to risk war with Germany


Gamble gave him confidence for the future


Spanish Civil War

1936-37


Communist supported by left wing Republican government


Right wing rebels led by General Franco


Hitler used as an excuse to test out the Luftwaffe, who devastated the civilian population of cities such as guernica.


Showed world Hitlers power and military force.


Sparked an Alliance between the equally involved Mussolini of Italy to form the Anti Comintern pact of 1937 with Japan

Anticomintern Pact

Aims to reduce worldwide Communist influence


1936- Japan and Germany sign it


1937- Italy sign it.


Became the Axis Alliance

Anschluss

1938


He gained confidence from previous successes


He felt the two stages belonged together, and Austria supported this since they were economically weak.


Tried in 1934 but was stopped by Mussolini, but after the Axis Alliance, this was no longer a problem.



Events


Hitler encouraged Seyss-Urquart and the strong nazi party of Austria to cause trouble such as riots and demonstrations


He told Chancellor Schuschnigg that only an Anschluss would solve this and pressurised him


Schuschnigg appealed to Britain and France who refused to help.


He held a plebiscite, but hornet didn't want to risk loss so he positions armed troops at polling stations and the Austrians voted 99.75% in favour.



No military confrontation by Britain or France and Chamberlain felt it was right and that the ToV was unjust. Weren't willing to go to war over a flawed treaty.



Germany got weapons, soldiers and rich deposits of Gold


Appeasement - Chamberlain or Baldwin?

Chamberlain took charge in 1937, when Hitlers most vulnerable years were in 1935 & 36.



The last chance to stop him was at the Rhineland, and at this time Stanley Baldwin was a prime Minister.

Why Appeasement?

He stood up to communism, and was saw as a buffer to the threat of Stalin



British empire wouldn't support a war with Germany



Didn't want a repeat of WW1



Britain weren't ready for war and were no match for the German forces by 1938



ToV was unjust



USA wouldn't support them in another war



Spanish Civil war showcased the power of the Luftwaffe and how horrific another war would be

Why was Appeasement bad? (Appeasement essay)

Gave Hitler an Advantage


He grew stronger and it encouraged him to risk more and more and his gambles paid off. It allowed him too much time to grow more powerful than Britain and France



It wasn't right


It allowed him to break international agreements such as the locarno Treaties and the ToV. They gave away full parts of nations that didn't belong to them. It made them look weak.



Relied on Hitler being reasonable


Which he wasn't, it didn't make him stop, it drove him on



Scared the USSR since they were aware of Hitlers plans to move Eastwards and they saw Britain and France were doing nothing to stop them, so it drove them to sign be the Nazi Soviet Pact.



They missed opportunities to stop him such as at the Rhineland, and it didn't stop a war at the end of the say It made matters worse.



In the essay, use some points about how it was wanted by alot of Brits who wanted to avoid war at all costs

Sudetenland 1938 background

Hitler began to feel untouchable


Edward Beněs of Czechoslovakia was horrified by Anschluss since he knew they were next


Beněs sought guarantees off Britain and France that they would defend the Czechs from an invasion. France reluctantly agreed and Britain went along with the French though asked Hitler of his plans and he promised he had none.



Czech borders were set at Versailles; Sudetenland bordered Germany and contained around 3 million Germans, so Hitler wanted to reunite German Speakers, one of his foreign policy aims.



Hitler ordered Henlein of the Sudeten Nazis to stir up trouble, demanding to be part of Germany, and German newspapers made allegations of crimes committed by Czechs on the Sudeten Germans. (Increased tensions across Europe)


Hitler said he'd go to war if it wasn't settled.



Britain France and the USSR had promised to protect the Czechs, who had a modern army, and Beněs who was prepared to fight, knowing without the Sudetenland and it's forts and railways, they would be defenceless against Germany.

Sudetenland main events

Munich 15th September - Chamberlain flew to Munich, Hitler made moderate demands for only parts of Sudetenland if a plebiscite said they wanted to join him.


19th Sept- Chamberlain and French Prime Minister Daladier put the plans forward to beněs who reluctantly agreed


22nd September - Hitler increased demands to all of the Sudetenland because he regretted it. Said he had intent on rescuing the Sudeten Germans by Oct 1st. Brit Navy mobilised, war seemed imminent.


29th September - Last ditch effort for peace, needing held between British French Germans and Italians, announcing Czechoslovakia was to lose the Sudetenland without telling the Czechs who were forced to give it up, or the soviets.



MUNICH AGREEMENT


Agreed not to go to war


"peace for our time"

Results of Munich Agreement

Czech government humiliated



Beněs resigned



Hitler never expected it to work but Britain appeased "undreamt of triumph so great you can scarcely imagine it"



Crucial Sudetenland area lost



British people were relieved but started to question Appeasement, with a poll saying that 93% of brits believed that it wouldn't stop Hitler.

End of Appeasement

Germany took the rest of Czechoslovakia March 1939



It showed Hitlers promises were not to be trusted and everyone knew that his next target was Poland and told Hitler of he invaded, they would declare war. Appeasement had failed.

Why was the Nazi Soviet Pact 1939 signed?

He didn't think Britain and France wouldn't stop his invasion of Poland but thought Stalin might.


Stalin had worried about German that side 1933 as Hitler hated communism and spoke of his intent of conquering Russia.


Stalin couldn't reach and agreement with Britain or France, since joining the LoN in 1934 he saw then as weak, and Hitler and Mussolini as powerful. Britain also accepted German power as a buffer to communism.


They feared France wouldn't keep to the Franco Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance since they backed down to a powerless Hitler at the Rhineland.


Munich Agree didn't consult the USSR at all so he Stalin concluded they didn't care if Germany invaded the USSR and wouldn't protect them.


Nazi Soviet Pact 1939

Signed it on to split countries throughout Europe starting with Poland



Stalin had 2 choices: make an alliance with the British and fight Hitler over Germany, or make an Alliance with Hitler, get half of Poland and lots of money, and tone to prepare for the incoming war alongside Germany



THUG


Time to prepare for the war


Hope to gain from a war where the other nations depleted themselves


Unhappy with Britain since they didn't Trust Stalin, Appeasement convinced him they were pathetic and wouldn't help him if he had to fight Hitler alone


Germany, Hitler knew only Russia Cound keep Britain's to promise to Poland and thought that with Stalin on board then would back down again.



Signed by Ribbentrop and Molotov, nazi and Soviet foreign ministers



Also promised Stalin freedom to occupy 3 baltic states.

Pact of Steel

Between Italy and Germany in 1939 promising to act side by side in future events

Poland and war

He gained confidence from:


The pact with the USSR as it gave him security that there would be no Soviet retaliation


Britain and France Appeasement strategy convinced him they wouldn't be willing to go to war


Poland was far from the other 2 so he'd had time to prepare before they could stop him


1st September 1939 He invaded Poland from the west and the soviets invade from the east, France and Britain declare war on the 2nd due to the Polish Guarantee drawing a non negotiable line of tolerance and it was the formal end to Appeasement.

Appeasement over HFP essay

HFP - if he didn't want to act the way he didn't there'd be no reason to appease


If he didn't invade the Rhineland then he wouldn't have been given confidence to act the way he did in the future. If his aims in foreign policy were different he wouldn't have tried to takeover the areas such as Austria and the Sudetenland.



Appeasement - Hitler was an opportunist who reaped the rewards from the mistakes of his enemies.


Last opportunity to stop him was at the Rhineland but they appeased him and he grew to too strong.


It scared the USSR onto thinking the Polish guarantee was ******** and so he they signed the Nazi Soviet Pact which was a huge that to peace as it gave Hitler the all clear to invade Poland.