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81 Cards in this Set

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South's economic need for new land?

high demand, good payoff


South's political reason for new land

slavery, south cannot go against north in votes regarding slavery, and the need for more slave states to provide 2 slave state senators

South's survival reasons for new land

need to spread slavery so that it survives

Similarities between North and South

south makes cotton that the north uses, both fought together against England, share the same religions same commitment to american values, both value the same rights

What percentage of white southerners owned slaves?

25%

Lowland

level ground for more plantation, cotton, and slaves

High land

hilly land, less plantations, less need for slaves, bad soil

Hinton Helper

Impending crisis of the south, said slavery was an economic curse to the south. slavery held back southern economy


Why the absence of conflict?

many southern whites were related, common whites did business with slave owners/farmers, non-slave owners wanted to actually become slave owners, slave owners in office looked out for those beneath

Paternalism

slave owner cares for his slaves like a father for his children. takes care of food and medical needs for them

Why did Methodists and Baptists split?

Issues over disagreeing over slavery, some thought slavery was good and in the Bible

Gang system

closely supervised, do work together as a team, particularly at large cotton plantations

Task system

usually used on rice plantations. slaves have different tasks each day. when finished, you have a free day after that

Façade of absolute control

owner did not actually have complete controller everything slaves did

Slave recreation

didn't work all 7 days, had Sundays off sometimes, would go to church, play music, interact

Religion

slaves are not automatically free if changed to Christians, white families minister to slaves

Head of family's limited authority

couldn't prevent wife and children from being punished or sexually abused, couldn't prevent family being split up

Slave Resistance

about a handful of successful planned open rebellions

Nat Turner's Rebellion (1831)

Nat Turner was a slave preacher, had more power than other slaves. Spread word of rebellion 57 whites and captured/saved many slaves

Subtle resistance

burned building, stole things, hurt farm animals, tricked the master

The Alamo

-Mexicans v. Americans/Texans


-Fought for 13 days and Mexicans killed everyone in the Alamo (including Davy Crockett)


-Sam Houston from TN lead the other army


-All for the Texas war for independence

San Jacinto (April 1836)

rebellers capture + defeat Santana in only 18 minutes

James K. Polk (TN)

-wins presidency in 1845


-Manifest Destiny: wants to spread all the way to the Pacific

Manifest Destiny

takes California, Texas, Oregon and Utah

Mexican-American War (1846-1848)

Mexico was crossed American territory and shed American blood, gives Polk a reason to go to war

Free Soilers (free laborers)

Free soilers - white northerners who believed that slavery was a threat to their own way of life. They believed opportunities for advancement were essential, and that such opportunities were absent in a slave society

Wilmont Proviso

Congressman from the House (PA), proposes bill that any land acquired from Mexico will be free land

Free Soil Party

Its main purpose was to prevent the expansion of slavery into Western territories

Slave Power Conspiracy

southerners using their politics to protect and spread slavery throughout the country

Southern Views on slavery

believed you have to to have slavery to expand farming and improve economy, necessary to expand for economy

Popular Sovereignty

allowed new settlers in new territories decide if their state will be free or not

Compromise of 1850

nation's capital even had slaves in chains and slave trades. embarrassment to own country who was supposed to believe "all men are created equally"

Nashville Convention (1850)

southerners discuss maybe succeeding from the union, wait and see approach, south begins to unify decide not to succeed, made Clay's compromise more possible

Stephen Douglas

Ran against Lincoln in the Senate (1858), powerful and has influence, takes up Clay's bill and divides his compromise into different individual bills to pass through congress

Fugitive Slave Laws in Practice

existence of hired slave catchers, allow US marshals to be used to round up runaway slaves, public buildings could be used to house runaway slaves until ready to take them back

Personal Liberty Laws

says you can't use public buildings to hold slaves, appoint lawyers for accused slaves, make it harder for southerners to capture their own slaves again

Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852)

story about slaves, sold 1 million copies

The Kansas-Nebraska Act

organized the unorganized territory from the Louisiana purchase, separates land into Nebraska and Kansas, both territories use popular sovereignty to decide, both are above line so slavery shouldn't be allowed

Dred Scott Decision (1857)

-slave taken to a free state, but was tried to put back into slavery

-James Buckanon takes office - 7 to 2 decision on Dred Scott case


-Voted that Dred Scott is a slave and can not follow suit in court. Slaves are property of their masters, protected by 5th amendment meaning a master could take his slave into any US territory, even free states



John Brown's raid (1859)

religious, abolitionist, thought slavery was evil and sinful


-tried to end slavery on their own through rebellions


-goes to Harper's Ferry in Virginia for weapons, then have slaves stolen from plantations, build their army, and end slavery in a few weeks


-October 1859 - seize arsenal but no slaves come to them. local citizens fight with his men


-Lee retaliates and John loses

Election of 1860

-adopt more modern business + manufacturing ideals to appeal to Northerners.


-high tariffs on imports


-internal improvement to stimulate business


-Homestead act (free land out west for whoever gets there first)

Lincoln on slavery

-thought it morally wrong and un-American


-NOT an abolitionist. Although we did think slaves should be freed at some point


-was a Republican and free soiler

Lincoln becomes president (Nov. 6, 1860)

Reassures southerners, tells them that they cannot overthrow slavery himself


-offered to create an amendment to protect slavery for southerners

South Carolina leads the way (Dec. 20, 1860)

South Carolina is first to secede

Moderates

Two conditions


-slavery must be protected where it exists


-federal government cannot use coercion against the states that have seceded

Crittenden Compromise

1. protect slavery in states where it already exists


2. extend the 36-30 line all the way to California "in territories now held or hereafter required"


3. Any fugitive slave not recovered would be compensated for by the government

Firing on Ft. Sumter (April 12, 1861)

-In the middle of Charleston Harbor


-US wouldn't surrender Sumter


-Lincoln's first day as president, 80 men suck on Sumter. Lincoln under pressure, doesn't want to start war


-Lincoln decides to send in supplies and food to the fort to prolong the crisis


-South fires first and the war begins

Population on eve of war

-North had 22 million


-South had 9 million (4 million were slaves)


-800,000 immigrants going to the North from other countries and help fight for the North


-186,000 slaves fought for the South

Manufacturing on eve of war

-91% of all factories in the US are in the North. North has this advantage South has to piece together weapon plants

Railroad milage on eve of war

-North had advantage (20,000 of all 30k miles of track is in North)


-Southern tracks all broken up up and many don't connect

Agricultural production

-75% of food/farming acreage is in the North


-25% in the south


-South's main focuses are cotton and tobacco

Copperheads

"peace democrats", worked against the war effort

Jefferson Davis

-had military education and experience. served in Mexican war. served in congress


-proud, arrogant, and hot-headed

Robert E. Lee (South)

brilliant and bold military commander, good at predicting his opponent's next moves

U.S. Grant (North)

1864 - when Lincoln finally recognized that Grant was his best general


-very level-headed and determined and had great common sense

Anaconda Plan

-cut off South's imports (w/ Blockade) so that the South shrivels and starves

First Menassas (Bull Run) (VA, July 1861)

-first major battle that takes place


-north appears to be winning, but last min. reinforcements help the south win

Sharpsburg (Antietam Creek) (MD, Sept. 1862)

-Convince France to intervene and help confederates


-Lee invades Maryland at Antietam Creek


-France and England not convinced to intervene


-Issues Emancipation Proclamation

Fredericksburg (Dec. 1862)


-Burnside, a war general, was inept and lost many of his troops


-Showed that some commanders were inept

Gettysburg (July 1863) (PA)

-3 day desperate battle, Lee retreats


-Decisive battle, costly, 50k casualties


-Turning point for the war, South begins to defend, north attacks

Petersburg Seige (VA, June 1864-April 1865)

-Lee loses a lot of his troops, only has about 10k troops left after 10 months


-Lee breaks out of Petersburg and Grant is on his heels

April 9, 1865

Lee Surrenders, south realizes war is going badly for them now

Forts Henry and Donelson (TN) (Feb. 1862)

-Nashville falls Feb. 1862


-Provides access to two major rivers

Battle of Shiloh (April 1862)

-2 day battle, confederates wins day 1


-Grant gets more troops, confederates are defeated


-Demonstrated that the war will be long and costly

Vicksburg (MS, May-July 1863)

-Grant tries 7 times to gain Vicksburg before succeeding


-July 4, 1863, Vicksburg surrenders

Chattanooga (Nov. 1863)

-Helps Lincoln realize that Grant is his best general

Atlanta (Sept. 1864)

-Huge victory for Lincoln and helps reassure his re-election and shows that he will see the war through

Civil War as first modern war

-New weapons and guns


-invention of trench warfare


-civilians become targets

Women in North and South

worked in factories, as spies, nurses. Ran houses alone, some dressed up as men and enrolled in the army. helped husbands with new farms and businesses

Why do historians say the South lost the war?

-Overpowered economically


-Overpowered militarily


-They had war weariness, low morale, and loss of will to fight


-Long war with many deaths and lost battles

Legacies of the Civil War

-620,000 deaths


-South is devastated


-13th amendment abolishes slavery


-Created idea of "united states", secession is now illegal

Presidential reconstruction (1865-1867)

Andrew Johnson was president

Johnson's Plan

-make southerners take oath of loyalty to the US


-governors in each state must have conventions of delegates


-Not allowed to pay off war debt


-Ratify a new amendment that abolishes slavery


-re-write state constitutions



Southern Defiance

-Southerners elected former confederates into office


-restrictions against the free black


-angry riots against black and their freedom

Congressional Reconstruction (1867-1877)

-Radical Republicans: wanted to punish the south, not happy with Johnson's plan


-Moderates joined Radicals, create iron-clad oath saying South had no part in the war

14th amendment

can't treat people differently

15th amendment

-can't prohibit someone from voting based on their race, creed, and previous servitude

Disputed Election of 1876

Rutherford B. Hayes (R) v. Samuel Tilden (D)

Compromise of 1877

-Hayes becomes president


-Hayes administration will not ask how democrats took power in south

When was reconstruction over?

By 1877

Legacies of Reconstruction

-Discrimination by Democratic Gov't


-13th, 14th, and 15th amendments


-Had the opportunity to do the right thing


-Civil rights movement still necessary