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136 Cards in this Set

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Imperialism
the policy of extending a nations authority by territorial acquisition or by establishing economic and political hegemony over weaker nations
(strong taking over the weak)
New Imperialism
late 19th cent. imperialism
intertwined w/ industrial rev, nationalism, social darwinism
Ancient African Kingdoms
along Niger river- West African kingdoms
Ghana, Mali, Songhai
they are all sustained by salt from the north and gold from the south (salt-gold trade)
Berlin Conference
designed to bring Europeans together and in an organized matter divide up Africa
(no Africans invited, Bismarck presided over it)
Scramble for Africa
every place in Africa is taken over
Britain takes the most important land (from Capetown to Cairo)
Moghul Dynasty
Muslim Indian Dynasty
Akbar the Great- tolerable
succeeded by Aurangzeb- intolerable
imposed second class citizenship on Hindus
Sepoy Mutiny
*Indian soldiers (sepoys) against the British
sparked by a rumor
cause: British aciting very superior-->Sepoys rebel
Sepoys fail ultimately
Raj
created by Britain to control India- a government
head of Raj=viceroy
tried to incorporate westernized Indians in it, but no equality for the Indians (--->opposition to British)
Opium Wars
Britain vs. China
Britain traded Opium w/China for silk, tea even though Chinese gov. forbade importing of Opium
Canton=only port Europe could trade with
C destroys Opium-->B reacts w/ war and Brits win
extraterritoriality
part of Treaty of Nanking (ended the Opium Wars in China)
foreigners are not allowed to be tried under Chinese laws- Britain could basically do whatever they want
Boxer Rebellion
(China) believed theyre ninjas, go after Christian Chinese and foreign diplomats
-->Europeans form international army and suppress the Boxer Rebel.
rebellion secretly supported by empress Cixi
Meiji Restoration
Japanese reformers overthrow the shogunate, and the Meiji (emperor) got the real power to set up the parliament called Diet
*westernization of Japan
industrial, imperial society
before the Russo-Japanese War
after Treaty of Shimonoseki, Japan pissed b/c had to give up Liaotung Peninsula- esp. mad @ Russia
Russo-Japanese War
Russia wanted part of Korea that Japan wanted too
-->Japanese strike at major Port Arthur of Russia
J defeat R @ Battle of Tsushima
JAPAN WINS (europeans defeated by non-europeans)
Dual Alliance
road to WWI
Bismarck (Germany) sets up secret alliance w/ Austria
(the rider controls the horse)
Triple Alliance
one of Bismarck's alliance
Italy joins Dual alliance (Germany and Austria)
Austria and Italy promise not to attack Bismarck
William II
comes to German throne and dismisses Bismarck, sought a "place in the sun" for Germany, weltpolitik=world political ambitions, does not renew the reinsurance treaty w/Russia
Reinsurance Treaty
Bismarck's treaty
Germany and Russia
key was to isolate France
they will stay out of each other's way
stopped by William II--> Franco-Russian alliance against Germany
War in the Balkans
road to WWI
Balkan powers ally and beat the Ottomans--> turn on each other
Serbia
road to WWI is in Albania- created a conflict- Austria want Serbs to get outta there and threaten war
Russia supports Serbs
Britain calls for conference- Serbs left Albania
Francis Ferdinand
archduke of Austria
assassinated by Black Hand (Bosnian Serbians)
moderate man though, so surprising the Serbs killed him- he was friendly towards them
-->assassination leads to world outrage= triggers WWI
The Allies
WWI
Britain, France, Russia
(later joined by Italy and US)
(Russia dropped out in 1917 b/c of Communist Rev)
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
(later joined by Bulgaria)
Von Schlieffen Plan
Germany's plan- WWI
go through Belgium as fast as possible
right wing force= very stronge
left wing=purposely weak so France thought they were vulnerable, then hit French from behind
*but miscalculated
Von Moltke carried out plan wrong
Battle of Marne
WWI
shows it's gonna be a hella bloody war
Battle of Tannenberg
WWI
Russians defeated by Germans
Gallipoli Campaign
led by Brit- Winston Churchill
try to get the Dardenelles
but unsucessful
wanted to do it to break the stalemate in the western front
Battle of the Somme
WWI
British fire millions of shells one after another @ Germans- weakened
"over the top"- get out of German trenches and Germans mowed down by Brits while exiting the trenches
Battle of Jutland
(no result really though)
Brit use Blockade, so Germans use submarine warfare
President Woodrow Wilson
"I kept America out of the War"
WWI- tried to negotiate peace btw Brits and Germans
but US brought into the war
idealist, quixotic- he could join the French+Brit when Russia was out of the war
his goal=to make the world safe for democracy
2nd Battle of the Marne
US brought into WWI after Russians withdrew and Germans resume sub. warfare w/o warning
Germans go all out at the battle agains the French+Brit, but Germans can't expel them
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
1917- WWI
Russia gives up tons of land to the Germans
Russia officially out of the war
now Germans don't have a 2 front war- eastern front is gone
Wilson's 14 Points
"war to end all wars"- WWI
reengineer social harmony- give rather quite fair peace terms to Germany
establishment of league of nations
self-determination= people speaking same language should be same nation
Treaty of Versailles
ended WWI
treaty btw Allies and Germany
Big Four: Wilson (US), Clemenceau (France), Lloyd George (Brit), Orlando (Italy-but leaves b/c didn'g get Italia Irrendta)
League of Nations
Result of WWI
meant to keep the peace and stamp out any aggressor nations- but there wasn't an army
Soviet Union, Germany, and US not in it (even though Wilson founded it)
Social Democrats
marxists- group in Russia btw the World wars
Bolsheviks=left wing
Mensheviks=right wing
both subverted marxist ideas
Bolsheviks
left wing of Social Democrats
create the inevitable, it does not come spontaneously- need a vangaurd (active)
dual revolution (w/peasants)
do not cooperate w/non-marx.
LENIN
Mensheviks
scientific marx.-classless rev. is inevitable, don't need to act on it (passive)
until the rev. comes, cooperate w/non-marxists groups
United Nations
Founded to promote international peace & cooperation
Marshall Plan
-U.S. aids Greece and Turkey
-European Recovery Program = Economic aid to European states
-Work together for mutual benefit
-Restored prosperity to W. Europe
Iron Curtain
Declared by Churchill - Divide a free and democratic west from a totalitarian east
Truman Doctrine
Support for the free people who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures
-Issued by U.S. after Brits
Containment
Resistance of Western Europe & Americans to Soviet communist plans for subversion and expansion
"stab in the back"
after Treaty of Versailles and WWI, Germans feel like they were stabbed in the back by the Allies and their own gov.- for agreeing to the peace terms
Lenin
communist
overthrows Kerensky's provisional gov. in Russia in Bolshevik Revolution-->takes over Russia
soviets
councils of workers and soldiers who wanted Marxism in Russia
Bolshevik Revolution
Lenin overthrows Kerensky's gov and takes over Russia
his partner=Trotsky
-->civil war in Russia- Reds (Bolsheviks) vs. Whites (all other Russians) but Reds win
Cheka
secret police of the Reds in Russia
Reds=communists, Bolsheviks, Lenin and Trotsky
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
W. Europe - Mutual assistance if any countries attacked
-1st time U.S. defend allies outside of Western Hemi
Warsaw Pact
E. Europe - States formed COMECON (Under direct Soviet domination)
Berlin Blockade/Berlin Airlift
Soviets feared new currency (Euro) in West -> blockade Berlin from West Germany
-West airlifted supplies to Berlin
West = German Federal Republic
East = German Democratic Republic
Korean War
N. Korea (Soviet) invaded S. Korea (U.S.)
-U.S. want to contain spread of communism
-Eisenhower ends -> restores border
3 Crises - POLAND
Gomulka (Pole leader) accepted by Soviets
-Want independence
NEP
New Economic Policy created by Lenin
"strategic retreat"- institutes limited capitalism
but not successful-peasants who made some money didn't have anything to purchase
Kerensky
after Tsar Nicholas II steps down, K sets up provisional gov. in Russia- he continues the war effort, but is later overthrown by Lenin
Black Shirt March (March on Rome)
Italy
Musso imposes his will on the shaky gov and ppl follow him
King Victor Emmanuel III could have stopped him, but didn't and appoints Musso prime minister
Mussolini
fascist- Italy- El duce
appointed prime minister by VEIII
"black shirts"
leads Black shirt march
dictatorial power for a year
Latern accord w/ the Church
Lateran Accord
Musso makes an accord w/ the Pope and Catholic Church
alliance of convenience- propped up Musso's power
Catholocism=official religion of Italy now
Totalitarianism
gov. has total authority over everything- everyone has to comply
Trotsky
(left- compared to Stalin)
Bolshevik- Lenin's Partner during Bolshevik Rev
didn't like NEP, rapid indust, collectivize agriculture, international communism
but Stalin kills him
Stalin
after Lenin dies, fights Trotsky for power (right)
not fast indust, communism in own nation, methodical, exiles and kills Trotsky
3 Crises - SUEZ
Nasser (Egypt) nationalized Egyptian control of Suez Canal -> war btw Egypt (USSR) and Israel (F&B)
-w/o help from US, west nations couldn't win
3 Crises - HUNGARY
Nagy (Hung.) wanted independence and withdrew from Warsaw Pact -> Soviets angry -> invade Hungary depose Nagy
Nasser
-President of Egypt
-Nationalized Suez Canal
-Aided by Soviet Union
Khrushchev
-Communist leader of USSR
-Gave secret speech against Stalin
Secret Speech of 1956
-Khrushchev attacks Stalin policies as crimes
-Retreat from Stalinist ways for other countries
Berlin Wall
-E. germans going into free W. Germany -> USSR made wall between E. Berlin and W. Berlin to stop cross over -> US more committed to West
Cuban Missile Crisis
USSR caught w/missiles pointing at US in Cuba -> US blockaded Cuba -> USSR removed missiles and made nuclear test ban treaty with US
Detente
Under president Nixon, US made agreements on trade and reduced strategic arms w/USSR
Brezhnev
-Communist leader in USSR
-more repression
-Brezhnev Doctrine
Brezhnev Doctrine
USSr can interfere in domestic policies of other communist countries
-prevent any liberation in E. Europe
Treaty of Rapallo
Inter-war years
Russia and Germany
establish diplomatic relations and economic transference- Germans train some of the Bolsheviks in Red Army
French invasion of the Ruhr Valley
France invades and says we're gonna take your goods until you pay the reparations
Germans react w/passive resistance-->French withdraw and Germany pays
Weimar Republic
in Germany- highly democratic
in btw WWI and WWII
associated w/weakness and defeat (Treaty of Versailles)
weak, article 48, -->inflation
Dawe's Plan
inter-war years
Americans give billions of dollars to Germany to pay its reparations and helps their economy
seems like international cooperation
Locarno Treaty
France withdraws from Ruhr
Germany in league of Nations- Stressman=leader of it
Stressman creates conciliatory foreign policy, but Germans deliberately do not recognize eastern front
Kellogg-Briand pact
starts w/ France and Germany
outlawing war!
Lebensraum
=living space
Hitler's idea
Germans need to expand into Eastern Europe and have room to reproduce the volk
Nuremberg Laws
part of persecution of Jews
stripped Jews of their German citizenship
stark discrimination of Jews, Jews forced to wear yellow star, Jews start to leave
Kristallnacht
start of hardcore persecution of Jews (precursor to Holocaust)
Nazis destroyed Jewish synagogues and businesses
Final Solution
Holocaust
plan to kill all of the Jews
planned at Wansee Conference- Heydrich responsible for it
Dubcek
Leader of Czechoslovakia
Experimented w/liberal communism
Expanded freedom of discussion
-> USSR installed communist leaders
Gorbachev
Different kind of communist leader
Perestroika = economic
Glasnost = political
Popular outside of country
Solidarity
Poland workers
If the Soviets invaded then Reagan would put them down -> Soviets didn't need to invade - Poland put itself down
Yugoslavia
Ruled by communist Tito
Slovenia breaks away -> Croatia wants to break away -> war ethnic cleansing -> NATO acts against Serbia -> Kosovo independence
Ethnic Cleansing
Serbians take over and kill Muslims and Albanians when countries break away from Yugoslavia
collectivization
gov. compelled farmers to give up everything they had and give their grain to the city
*peasants are hit hard by it
5 year plans
Stalin's plan to rapidly industrialize
successful- fully employed labor force
Japanese invasion of Manchuria
Japan invades China before WWII
League of Nations tells Japan its bad=Lytton Report
-->Japan says fine and leaves League of Nations
Italy invades Ethiopia
Musso takes over Ethipoia
League of Nations reacts softly
Brit. allow Italians to use Suez Canal which enable them to conquer Ethiopia
remilitarization of Rhineland
road to WWII
Hitler decides to take over the Rhineland
French hid behind Maginot Line, didn'tdo anything about it
*appeasement
Spanish Civil War
Popular Front (left wing) vs. Spanish Fascists- Francisco Franco (right wing)
Franco wins
western democracies didn't get involved
Anschluss
road to WWII
union btw Germany and Austria
clear violation of Versailles treaty, but no one does anything
Neville Chamberlain
appeasement
from Britain- says no to Hitler when asks for Sudetenland
but then Munich Conference
Munich Conference
road to WWII
symbolizes appeasement
Hitler got everything he demanded for before- Chamberlain agreed H could have SLand b/c H said he would take nothing more (liar)
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Road to WWII
btw Germany and Soviet Union (surprising!)
pact made to split up Poland, alliance of convenience
Blitzkrieg
Germany's all-out offensive at beginning of WWII
starts in the east
moves into Poland, Pland falls, Russia gets Baltic states
Petain and Vichy France
France falls after Battle of France in WWII- comes under rule of Petain- sets up a Nazi state in Vichy France
Battle of Britain
WWII
Winston Churchill- Britain
Germans invade Brit, but Brit wins
Winston Churchill
*anti-appeasement- not going to take any bait from Hitler
incredibly skillful, had an instrumental relationship w/ FDR- helps Brit stands up to Germany, inspires the free world against tyranny
Lend-Lease Act
US's role before WWII helps Britain
US will lend weapons but then after the war give it back
Yeltsin
Soviet Conservative (Left Prussian)
Wants faster reforms
Overthroows Gorbe and takes over
Good relations w/ West
Mao
Main goal = collectivization
Chinese communist leader
Launches Cultural Rev.
Great Leap Forward
Modernize countryside
Improve peasant lives
Progress in rural areas of China
Failure -> Cultural Revolution
Nehru
Leader of India
Democratic & Secular country
No country religion
Jinnah
Pakistan leader
Dictatorial Islam
Cultural Revolution
Launched by Mao to get attention away from failed "Greeat Leap Forward"
Radicalization of Chinese societies
EEC (European Economic Community)
Nations eliminate tariffs
Similar wage in all nations
Free flow of capital & labor
European Union
Unified currency = Euro
Renamed EEC after Treaty of Maastricht
Treaty of Maastricht
EEC -> European Union
Decide on common currency = Euro
Moslem League
Lead by Jinnah
World free of Brits
Operation Barbarossa
WWII
Hitler attacks Russia
but launched later b/c Musso screwed him when invaded Greece-->H had to help him
Battle of Midway
turning point in WWII
US defeats Japan
beginning of end of Japan
-->US starts island hopping
Battle of Stalingrad
bloodiest battle ever- WWII- turning point
Russians win, but w/huge losses-->momentum shifts toward Allies- Stalin wants 2nd front opened
D-Day
Eisenhower- invade Normandy to attack German forces holding France
Operation Overlord= June 1944
Germans build Atlantic Wall
France is liberated
**Germany defeated
Fall of the 3rd Reich
3rd Reich=Germany
when France is liberated
Battle of Bulge- Germany's last defensive stand
Germany loses, Hitler commits suicide= V-E Day
Manhattan Project/Atomic Bomb
WWII- Final defeat of Japan- V-J Day= August 1945
Americans boms mainland Japan- Hiroshima and Nagasaki-->Japan surrendered
Yalta Conference
conference during WWII
FDR accused of making stupid concessions- gives USSR eastern Europe w/democracy there
Germany and Berlin split, but unclear
the Free French
French gov in exile led by DeGaulle in WWII
helps to clean up communism in France
Charles DeGaulle
French general from Battle of France in WWII- escaped to Great Britain and declared himself leader of Free French gov in exile
United Nations (UN)
organization founded in 1945 to promote international peace and cooperation
after WWII
China going "Red"
Mao taking over in 1949 - China becoming communist
Gandhi
Believed caste system was evil
Heart of INC
India needs to be independent
Nehru
Leader of INC
Chiang Kai-Shek
Flees to Taiwan after Mao takes over China
Kuomintang
Nationalist party in China
Solidarity
Polish worker gather at Gdansk
Led by Lech Walesa
End of Detente
Afghanistan invasion by USSR
Carter Doctrine - President Carter - Anything threatening in the Middle East and goes in - US will hit militarily
Syngman Rhee
Anti-Communist, Authoritarian
Leader of South Korea against Northern communism
General Douglas MacArthur
"American Shogun"
INCHON - Expells N. Korea from S. Korea
Convinced Truman to go to N. Korea
Fired by Truman for insubordination
Get Philippines back
Kim il Sung
Leader of communist N. Korea
United Nations
Security council of nations
Potsdam Conference
New Big 3 (Truman, Atlee and Stalin)
Heated tensions between Stalin and Truman
Fought about Berlin
Beginning of Cold War
Truman pist Stalin didn't hold democratic elections
Yalta Conference
Big 3 meet (Chruchill, Stalin, FDR)
Agreed USSR would go to war w/Japan
FDR had good relations w/ Stalin
Origins of Cold War
Bipolar world order
2 emerging world powers = US & USSR
Ideological differences
War of weapons and technology
PROXY: allies w/both nations would fight - US and USSR fight indirectly
Partition of India/Pakistan
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Muslim league) and INC (Ghandi and Nehru) fighting in India-->Mountbatten (last viceroy) knows partition is coming
Pakistan= no democracy, Islam, supports US in Cold War
India= democracy, secular