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Scientific Notation

The scientific system of writing numbers; a method to write very big or very small numbers easily; composed of three parts: a mathematic sign (+ or -), the significand, and the exponential, sometimes called the logarithm.

Mathematical Sign of Scientific Notation

Designates whether the number is positive or negative

Significand of Scientific Notation

The base value of the number or the value of the number when all the values of ten are removed

Exponential in Scientific Notation

A multiplier of the significand in powers of ten

10^9

1,000,000,000

10^8

100,000,000

10^7

10,000,000

10^6

1,000,000

10^5

100,000

10^4

10,000

10^3

1,000

10^2

100

10^1

10

10^0

1

10^(-1)

0.1

10^(-2)

0.01

10^(-3)

0.001

10^(-4)

0.0001

10^(-5)

0.00001

10^(-6)

0.000001

10^(-7)

0.0000001

10^(-8)

0.00000001

10^(-9)

0.000000001

The Metric System measures...

1. Weight


2. Length


3. Volume

Basic measurements of the Metric System

1. Grams


2. Liters


3.Meters

Grams (g)

The basic measure of weight

Liter (L)

The basic measure of volume

Meter (m)

The basic measure of distance

Prefix

Are the same and have the same meaning or value, regardless of which basic unit of measurement is used; are the quantifiers of the measurement units; all are based on multiples of ten; any one can be combined with one of the basic units of measurement

Basic Unit of Measure

Standard unit of a system by which a quantity is accounted for and expressed

"Tera" Abbreviation

T-

"Tera" means...

10^12

"Tera" Numerically

1 quadrillion times

"Giga" Abbreviation

G-

"Giga" means...

10^9

"Giga" Numerically

1 billion times

"Mega" Abbreviation

M-

"Mega" means...

10^6

"Mega" Numerically

1 million times

"kilo" Abbreviation

k-

"kilo" means...

10^3

"kilo" Numerically

1 thousand times

"hecto" Abbreviation

h-

"hecto" means...

10^2

"hecto" Numerically

1 hundred times

"deka" Abbreviation

D-

"deka" means...

10^1

"deka" Numerically

10 times

"deci" Abbreviation

d-

"deci" means...

10^(-1)

"deci" Numerically

1 tenth of

"centi" Abbreviation

c-

"centi" means...

10^(-2)

"centi" Numerically

1 hundredth of

"milli" Abbreviation

m-

"milli" means...

10^(-3)

"milli" Numerically

1 thousandth of

"micro" Abbreviation

µ-

"micro" means...

10^(-6)

"micro" Numerically

1 millionth of

"nano" Abbreviation

n-

"nano" means...

10^(-9)

"nano" Numerically

1 billionth of

"pico" Abbreviation

p-

"pico" means...

10^(-12)

"pico" Numerically

1 trillionth of

"femto" Abbreviation

f-

"femto" means...

10^(-15)

"femto" Numerically

1 quadrillionth of

Fahrenheit

a. Zero degrees (0*) is the freezing point of sea water or heavy bring at sea level.


b. 32* is the freezing point of pure water at sea level.


c. 212* is the boiling point of pure water at sea level.


d. Most people have a body temperature of 98.6*

Celsius (Centigrade)

Temperature system used in the rest of the world and by the scientific community.


a. Zero degrees (0*) is the freezing point of pure water at sea level.


b. 100* is the boiling point of pure water at sea level.


c. Most people have a body temperature of 37*

Kelvin

Used only in the scientific community.


a. Zero degrees (0) is -273* C and is thought to be the lowest temperature achievable or absolute zero (0).


b. The freezing point of water is 273.


c. The pointing point of water is 373.


d. Most people have a body temperature of 310.

Fahrenheit to Celsius Equation

(F - 32) x (5/9)

Celsius to Fahrenheit Equation

C x (9/5) + 32

Kelvin Equation

1. Convert to Celsius (Centigrade)

2. Add 273

Atom

The basic building block of a molecule that contains a nucleus and orbits.

Nucleus

The positively charged mass within an atom, composed of neutrons and protons, and possessing most of the mass but occupying only a small fraction of the volume of the atom.

Orbit

The outermost part of the atom that consists of electrons that spin around the nucleus at fantastic speeds forming electron clouds

Electron Cloud

The group of electrons revolving around the nucleus of an atom; a cloudlike group of electrons

Proton

Part of the nucleus of an atom that has a positive electric charge

Neutron

Part of the nucleus of an atom that has no charge

Electron

A structure in an atom that is at the outermost part of the atom and has a negative charge; orbit the nucleus at fantastic speeds forming ******** clouds

Ground State Atoms

Tend to have equal numbers of protons and electrons, making them electrically neutral

Ion (Ionic State)

An electrically charged atom; occurs when the atom is in a solution or in the form of a chemical compound; will have lost electrons, resulting in a net positive charge or will have gained electrons, resulting in a net negative charge

Cation

A positively charged atom

Anion

A negatively charged atom

Periodic Table

A table that organizes the elements based on their structure and thus helps predict the properties of each of the elements; made up of a series of rows called periods and columns called groups

Periods

A series of rows within the periodic table that classify the elements

Groups

Elements that are placed together in columns in the periodic table

Name the Groups on the Periodic Table

Charge of Group IA

Plus one (+1)

Charge of Group IIA

Positive two (+2)

Charge of Group IIIA

Positive three (+3)

Charge of Group IVA

Either positive four (+4) or negative four (-4)

Charge of Group VA

Negative three (-3)

Charge of Group VIA

Negative two (-2)

Charge of Group VIIA

Negative one (-1)

Charge of Group VIIIA

No charge when in solution (Noble Gases)

Why do the Noble Gases have no charge?

Their outer orbits are complete

Number of electrons in Group IA

1

Number of electrons in Group IIA

2

Number of electrons in Group IIIA

3

Number of electrons in Group IVA

4

Number of electron in Group VA

5

Number of electrons in Group VIA

6

Number of electrons in Group VIIA

7

Number of electrons in Group VIIIA

8

Transition Metals

Groups 3 IIIB through 12 IIB on the Periodic Table

Atomic Number

The number of protons in the nucleus, and it defines an atom of a particular element; located at the top of each of the squares in a periodic table; always a whole number

Atomic Mass

The average mass of each of that element's isotopes; located at the bottom of each of the squares in the periodic table; usually a decimal number

Isotopes

Different kinds of the same atom that vary in weight; for a given element, the number f protons remains the same, while the number of neutrons varies to make the different isotopes

Compound

The combination of two or more elements or atoms; combine in whole number ratios

Chemical Equation

Combination of elements or compounds called reactants responding to create a product or end result; are written in the following manner: Reactants --> Products. (In some instances, the arrow can go the other way or both ways.)

Reactant

The part of a chemical reaction that reacts to produce a desired end result or compound

Products

A substance or compound created from a chemical reaction

Ways in which Chemical Equations can occur (Reactants and Products)

1. Reactants --> Products


2. Reactants <-- Products


3. Reactants <--> Products

Equilibrium

A state in which reactants are forming products at the same rate that products are forming reactants; as chemicals A and B react to create C and D, C and D react to make more A and B at the same rate

Ways to increase the Reaction Rate

1. Increase the temperature in the reaction


2. Increase the surface area f the reactants


3. Add a catalyst


4. Increase the concentrations of reactants

Increasing the Temperature to increase the Reaction Rate

Causes the particles to have a greater kinetic energy, thereby causing them to move around faster, increasing their chances of contact and the energy with which they collide

Increasing the Surface Area of the Particles to increase the Reaction Rate

Gives the particles more opportunity to come into contact with one another; (e.g.) increasing the surface area of a log by cutting it into shavings or sawdust will allow it to burn or react must faster than a whole log

Catalysts

Substances that accelerate a reaction by reducing the activation energy or the amount of energy necessary for a reaction to occur; not used up in the reaction and can be collected on completion

Examples of Catalysts

1. Metals


2. Proteins (Enzymes)

Increasing the Concentration of the Reactants to increase the Reaction Rate

Will cause more chance collisions between the reactants and produce more products; (e.g.) if there are more cars on the road, there are likely to be more accidents or collisions; the more reactants there are, the faster or more often they will bump into each other and react or become product

Solution

A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

Solute

The part of a solution that is being dissolved

Solvent

The part of the solution that is doing the dissolving

Solutions can be...

1. A liquid in a liquid


2. A solid in a liquid


3. A solid in a solid

Types of solutions

1. Compounds

2. Alloys


3. Amalgams


4. Emulsions


Compounds (Solutions)

Mixtures of different elements to create a single matter

Alloys (Solutions)

Solid solutions of metals to make a new one such as bronze, which is copper and tin

Amalgams (Solutions)

A specific type of alloy in which another metal is dissolved in mercury

Emulsions (Solutions)

Mixtures of matter that readily separate such as water and oil

Concentration is expressed as...

1. Weight per weight


2. Weight per volume


3. Volume per volume

Weight per Weight

(e.g.) Grams per grams

Weight per Volume

(e.g.) Grams per liters

Volume per Volume

(e.g.) Milliliters per liter

Percent Concentration

The expression of concentrations as parts per 100 parts; mostly expressed as milligrams (mg) per 100 milliliters (mL), which can also be written as mg/100mL or mg/dL

Molarity (Molar Concentration)

A more sophisticated way to express concentrations than is percent

Mole (Avogadro's Number)

A way to express concentrations of atoms; 6.02 x 10^23 of particles

Chemical Reactions involve...

Making or changing chemical bonds between elements or compounds to create new chemical compounds with different chemical formulas and different chemical properties

Main types of Chemical Reactions

1. Synthesis


2. Decomposition


3. Combustion


4. Single Replacement


5. Double Replacement

Synthesis

A type of chemical reaction in which two elements combine to form a product; (e.g.) K + Cl --> KCl

Decomposition

A chemical reaction often described as the opposite of synthesis because it is the breaking of a compound into its component parts; opposite of synthesis

Combusion

A self-sustaining exothermic chemical reaction usually initiated by heat acting on oxygen and a fuel compound such as hydrocarbons

Single Replacement

Reactions that consist of a more active metal reacting with an ionic compound containing a less active metal to produce a new compound

Double Replacement

A reaction that involves two ionic compounds; the positive ion from one compounds combines with the negative ion of the other compound; the result is two new ionic compounds that have "switched partners."

Chemical Bonding

The joining of one atom, element, or chemical to another

Main types of Chemical Bonding

1. Ionic


2. Covalen

Ionic Bonds

An electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions or a cation and an anion; this type of bond is generally formed between a metal (cation) and a nonmetal (anion)

Covalent Bonds

Two atoms share electrons, generally in pairs, one from each atom; the strongest of any type of chemical bond and is generally formed between two nonmetals

Types of Covalent Bonds

1. Single


2. Double


3. Triple

Single Covalent Bond

The sharing of one pair of electrons to create a bond

Double Covalent Bond

The sharing of two electrons to create a bond

Triple Covalent Bond

The sharing of three electrons to create a bond

Nonpolar Bond

In a covalently bonded compound when the electrons in the bond are shared equally

Polar Bond

In a covalently bonded compound when the electrons in the bond are shared unequally; the shared electron density of the bond is concentrated around one atom more than the other

Polarity

Based on the difference in electronegativity values for the elements involved in the bond; the greater the difference, the more polar the bond will be, or one end or side of the molecule will have a charge distinctly more positive and the other side will be more negative in charge

Intermolecular Forces

Not bonding interactions between atoms within a molecule but instead are weaker forces of attraction between whole molecules

Types of Intermolecular Forces

1. Hydrogen Bonding


2. Dipole-Dipole Interaction


3. Dispersion Forces

Hydrogen Bonds

The attraction for a hydrogen atom by a highly electronegative element; about 5-10% as strong as a covalen bond, making them the strongest of the intermolecular forces

Strongest Intermolecular Force

Hydrogen Bonds

Elements generally involved in Hydrogen Bonds

1. Fluorine (F)


2. Oxygen (O)


3. Nitrogen (N)

Dipole-Dipole Interactions

The interaction of one dipole on one molecule for the dipole of another molecule; weak Intermolecular Force; only about 1% as strong as a normal covalent bond

Dipole

Created when an electron pair is shared unequally in a covalent bond between two atoms or elements; will have a positive end and a negative end

Dispersion Forces (London Dispersion Forces)

The weakest of all the Intermolecular Forces; sometimes the electrons within an element or compound will concentrate themselves on one side of an atom causing a momentary or temporary dipole, which would be attracted to another momentary dipole of opposite charge in another near element or compound

Stoichiometry

The part of chemistry that deals with the quantities and numeric relationships of the participants in a chemical reaction; for a chemical equation to be balanced, numbers call coefficients are placed in from f each compound - these numbers are used in a ratio to compare how much of one substance is needed to react with another in a certain reactio

Dimensional Analysis




Given the reaction,




2C2H6 + 7O2 --> 4CO2 + 6H2O




determine the number of moles of oxygen that will react with four (4) moles of ethane (C2H6).

4 mol C2H6 x (7 mol O2 / 2 mol C2H6) = 14 mol O2


React (Changed) x ( Given / Given) = Answer




The ratio of oxygen to ethane is seven to two. By multiplying the given amount of four moles of ethane by the given amount from the coefficient from the equation, one can determine the amount of oxygen needed to react.

Oxidation/Reduction Reactions (Redox)

Involve the transfer of elections from one element to another

Oxidation

The loss of electrions

Reduction

The gain of electrons

Reductant (Reducing Agent)

The element that is oxidized (loses electrons)

Oxidant (Oxidizing Agent)

The element that is reduced (gains electrons)

Rules to determine the Oxidation States of all elements in the Compound

1. The oxidation number of any elemental atom is zero. This means that if an element is in its natural state, its number is zero. Most elements in their standard states are single atoms, but a few exceptions exist. Those exceptions are hydrogen (H2), bromine (B2), oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), iodine (I2), and fluorine (F2). These elements, when they exist outside of a compound in their natural state, are always in pairs.


2. The oxidation number of any simple ion is the charge of the ion. If in a reaction, sodium (Na) were listed as an ion (Na+), it would have an oxidation number of plus one (+1). If chlorine (Cl) were listed as an ion (Cl-), it would have an oxidation number of minus one (-1).


3. The oxidation number for oxygen in a compound is minus two (-2)


4. The oxidation number or hydrogen in a compound is plus one (+1)


5. The sum of the oxidation numbers equals the charge on the molecules or polyatomic ions

Exceptions to elemental atoms having an oxidation number of zero

1. Hydrogen (H2)


2. Bromine (B2)


3. Oxygen (O2)


4. Nitrogen (N2)


5. Iodine (I2)


6. Fluorine (F2)

The oxidation number of any simple ion is...

The charge of teh ion

The oxidation number for oxygen in a compound is...

Minus two (-2)

The oxidation number for hydrogen in a compound is...

Plus one (+1)

The sum of the oxidation numbers equals...

The charge one the molecules or polyatomic ions

Acid

A compound that is a hydrogen or proton donor; it is corrosive to metals, changes blue litmus paper red, and becomes less acidic when mixed with bases

Base

A hydrogen or proton acceptor and generally has a hydroxide (OH) group i the makeup of the molecule; also called alkaline compounds and are substances that denature proteins, making them feel very slick; they will change red litmus paper blue and become less basic when mixed with acids

pH

The concentrations of acids; the ** scale commonly in use ranges from 0 to 14 and is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution

H2O + H2O -->

H3O+ + OH-

A pH of 7 is...

Neutral

Nuclear Chemistry

Concerned with reactions that take place in the nucleus to obtain stable nuclear configurations

Radioactivity

The word used to describe the emission of particles and/or energy from an unstable nucleus

Radiation

The particles and/or energy that are emitted from Nuclear Chemistry

Types of Radiation

1. Alpha


2. Beta


3. Gamma

Alpha Radiation

The emission of helium nuclei; contain two protons and two neutrons, causing them to have a charge of plus two (+2)

Alpha Particles

The largest of the radioactive emissions, and penetration of these ********* can generally be stopped by a piece of paper

Beta Radiation

A product of the decomposition of an neutron or proton; composed of high-energy, high-speed electrons that began as neutrons or protons and have "decayed" to electrons

Beta Particles

Are either negatively charged (electrons) or positively charged (protons); have virtually no mass and therefore can be stopped by a thin sheet of aluminum foil, Lucite, or plastic

Gamma Radiation

High-energy electromagnetic radiation, similar to x-rays but with more energy; very penetrating and can go through several feet of concrete or several inches of lead; lead shielding is required to block ***** rays

How is an isotope written?




Use Iodine-131 as an example.

^131I

Half-Life

The amount of time it takes for half of the unstable isotope in a same to decay

Biochemistry

The study of chemical processes in living organisms; deals with the structures and functions of cellular components such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids

Types of cellular components that Biochemistry deals with

1. Carbohydrates


2. Proteins


3. Lipids


4. Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates

Sugars and starches; more abundant than any other known type of biomolecule

Most important function of Carbohydrates

To store and provide energy for the body

Deoxyribose

A sugar used in the formation of DNA

Ribose

Sugar used in the formation of RNA

Monosaccharides

Simplest type of carbohydrate; contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in a ratio of 1:2:1

Disaccharides

Two monosaccharides joined together

Oligosaccharides

When three to six monosaccharides are joined together

Polysaccharides

More than six and up to thousands of monosaccharides joined together; also called a starch

Types of Carbohydrates

1. Monosaccharides


2. Disaccharides


3. Oligosaccharides


4. Polysaccharides

General Formula of Monosaccharides

Cm(H2O)n where m is at least three

Types of Monosaccharides

1. Glucose


2. Fructose

Glucose

(C6H12O6); one of the most important carbohydrates; monosaccharide

Fructose

(C6H12O6); the sugar commonly associated with the sweet taste of fruits; monosaccharide

Hexose

A six carbon sugar

Types of Disaccharides

1. Sucrose


2. Lactose

Sucrose

The most well known disaccharide; ordinary surgar; consists of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule joined together

Lactose

Milk sugar; consists of a glucose molecule and a galactose molecule; disaccharide

Most common Polysaccharides

1. Cellulose


2. Glycogen

Cellulose

Polysaccharide made by plants; are chains of repeating glucose units

Glycogen

Polysaccharide made by animals; are chains of repeating glucose units

Glycolysis

Anaerobic breakdown of glucose; first stage in cell respiration; metabolizes glucose; net result is the breakdown of one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate and two molecules of ATP

Glycolysis produces...

1. Two molecules of pyruvate


2. Two molecules of ATP

Oxidation Phosphorylation (Krebs Cycle)

Pyruvate from Glycolysis is further metabolized here, generating more molecules of ATP, water, and carbon dioxide

Anaerobic

In the absence of or without oxygen

Anaerobic Glycolysis

Converts glucose to lactate instead of pyruvate; the production of lactate in muscles creates the "cramp" sensation during intense exercise

Gluconeogenesis

Glucose made from the liver from other non-carbohydrate sources, such as proteins and parts of fat; the glucose produced can then enter the energy-producing cycles mentioned previously and undergo glycolysis, or glucose can be stored as glycogen in animals or as cellulose in plants; the glucose can also be used to make other saccharides

Proteins

Made up of (more than thirty) amino acids

Amino Acid

A molecule composed of a carbon atom bonded with four groups: an amine group (NH2), a carboxyl group (COOH), a hydrogen, and an R group

An Amino Acid is a molecule composed of a carbon atom bonded with what groups?

1. Amine group (NH2)


2. Carboxyl group (COOH)


3. Hydrogen


4. R group

Amine Group

NH2

Carboxyl Group

COOH

Dipeptide

A union of two amino acids using a peptide bond

Peptides (Polypeptides)

A group of less than thiry amino acids

Albumin

A fairly small, yet important, protein in the blood; contains 585 amino acid residues

How many amino acids are needed to make all the proteins necessary for life?

Twenty two (22)

Lipids

Fats that encompass a large group of molecules, including oils, fats, and fatty acids; used by the body to insulate body organs against shock, to maintain body temperature, to keep skin and hair healthy, and to promote healthy cell functions; serve as an energy source for the body; found in foods such as oils, milk, and milk products such as butter and cheese

Fatty Acids

Consist of a hydrocarbon chain with an acid group, carboxyl group (COOH), at one end

Triglyceride (Neutral Fat)

Three fatty acids generally joined to a glycerol or some other backbone structure

Phospholipids

Similar to neutral fats but one of the three fatty acids is replaced by a phosphate group; essential components of cell membranes

Cholesterol

A form of fat composed of a four ring structure and a side chain; an obligatory precursor for many important biologic molecules such as steroid horomones

Types of Natural Lipids

1. Unsaturated


2.Polyunsaturated


3. Saturated

Saturated Fats

Have no double bond between carbon atoms of the fatty acid chains

Unsaturated Fats

Have one or more double bonds between some of the carbon atoms of the fatty acid chains and are more desirable in our diet than saturated fats

What fats are more desirable in our diets?

Unsaturated

Nucleic Acids

The biologic brain of life, telling the cell what it will do and how to do it; include DNA and RNA; found in all living cells and viruses; mostly found in the nucleus but also found in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of individual cells; very large molecules that have two pain parts

The backbone of DNA is composed of what?

1. Deoxyribose


2. Phosphate

Deoxyribose

A five carbon sugar; also called a pentose

DNA Backbone

Composed of deoxyribose and a phosphate, which alternately chain together in a "sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate" chain, making two very long structures; the two chains twist around each other to form a double helix

The bases of DNA (adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine) connect where on the backbone of DNA?

Sugars

How does the structure of RNA differ from that of DNA?

1. It is a single strand of ribose in a sugar-phosphate chain


2. Thymine is replaced by Uracil

Anti-parallel

The two sugar-phosphate chains in DNA run in opposite directions: one up and one down