Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/93

Click to flip

93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The ___________ is the fundamental unit of life
Cell
The 4 elements comprising 99% of living organisms:
C: Carbon
H: Hydrogen
N: Nitrogen
O: Oxygen
Element
Matter composed of atoms that all have the same atomic number.
Atom
The smallest component of an element that still has properties of the element--A positively charged nucleus surrounded by a charged cloud of electrons
The particle in the nucleus with a positive charge of +1, and an atomic mass of 1
Proton
Neutron
A non-charged nuclear particle with the same atomic mass as the proton
A particle with a negative charge of -1 with a mass of 1/1837 of that of a proton.
Electron
Atoms with the same number of protons and electrons, but DIFFERING numbers of neutrons
Isotopes
Located outside the nucleus of an atom and determine properties of the atom
Electrons
Atomic orbitals
The pattern of movement of electrons around the nucleus
The transfer of electrons from one molecule (oxidation) to another (reduction) is called ______________
The redox reaction.
Electron sharing between two molecules results in what?
Covalent bond
Bond energy
The energy required to break a covalent bond
Possible number of covalent bonds for Hydrogen
1 possible
Possible number of covalent bonds for Oxygen
2 possible
Possible number of covalent bonds for Nitrogen
3 possible
Possible number of covalent bonds for Carbon
4 possible
Possible number of covalent bonds for Sulfur
5 possible
Molecule
Two or more atoms linked by a chemical bond
___________ bonds are formed by one atom giving up an electron to another atom.
Ionic bonds
___________ bonds are formed by atoms sharing electrons.
Covalent bonds
_____________ refers to the tendency of an atom to bind electrons
Electronegativity
Chemical reactivity of molecules
Tendency to break and form chemical bonds
_____________ release H+
Acids
_______________ accept H+
Bases
A neutral solution has a pH of ___________
7.0
A solution with a pH between 1-6 is _______________
Acidic
A solution with a pH between 8-14 is _______________
Basic
Hydrogen bonding results in the unique physical properties of water (4)
High heat of vaporization
Strong surface tension
High specific heat
Solvent properties
Organic molecules contain ________________
Carbon
The addition of a ________________ by a _________________ is a key regulatory switch for many biological processes.
Phosphate group
Protein kinase
The elements used for making the molecules of living systems must be _______________ and ______________
Suitable and available
A key feature of redox reactions, making them particularly important in biology, is that:
The electron being transferred retains its energy.
Which atom, oxygen or carbon, when paired with hydrogen, would make a covalent bond with a higher degree of polarity?
Oxygen, with a very high electronegativity (3.5) has greater electronegativity than hydrogen (2.1)
The 4 major classes of small biological molecules found in cells are:
Carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides
A single sugar, like glucose or fructose is a _____________
Monosaccharide
An example of a disaccharide would be_______________
Sucrose
A series of monosaccharides linked by _________________ bonds form __________________
Glycosidic bonds, polysaccharides
Lipids are characterized by _____________ in water and solubility in organic solvents or ________________
Insolubility, detergents
The most efficient energy storage molecules in cells
Lipids
The building blocks of protein are __________________
Amino acids
__________ different amino acids are used to make proteins.
20
Amino acids differ from one another in the structure and properties of the
R-groups
R groups are of three types: ____________ and charged, polar and ___________, or _____________________
Polar and charged
Polar and uncharged
Hydrophobic
The building blocks of RNA and DNA are _______________
Nucleotides
The tertiary structure of a protein refers to________________
The overall folding of the entire polypeptide chain into a specific 3-dimensional shape.
The secondary structure of a protein is____________
The regular, repeated patterns of folding the protein backbone
The most common secondary folding patterns in the protein backbone defining the protein's secondary structure are the __________________ and the ________________
Alpha helix
Beta sheet
The primary structure of a protein is the ___________ of _______________ that make up the polypeptide chain.
Linear sequence
Amino acids
The _____________________ structure of a protein results when a protein is formed from more than one polypeptide chain.
Quaternary
Taxonomy is the discipline of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of________________
Shared characteristics
All cells arise from other cells through _________________
Cell division
______________ are the primary units of inheritance in all organisms
Genes
A gene is the primary unit of heredity, and corresponds to a region of ____________ that influences the form or function of an organism in specific ways.
DNA
_____________ is the first step of gene expression
Transcription
In transcription, a particular segment of _____ is copied into _____ by the enzyme RNA polymerase
DNA
RNA
RNA and DNA are __________
Nucleic acids
RNA and DNA use base pairs of ______________ as a complementary language that can be converted back and forth from DNA to RNA by the action of _______________
Nucleotides
Enzymes
During transcription, a ________ sequence is read by an ___________ polymerase, which produces a complementary antiparallel _____________ strand.
DNA, RNA, RNA
In ____________ replication, transcription results in a __________ complement, including uracil in all instances where thymine would have occurred in a __________ complement.
DNA, RNA, DNA
An organism whose cells contain a nucleus (containing DNA) and other organelles, enclosed within membranes
Eukaryote
________________ are a group of organisms whose cells lack a membrane-bound nucleus
Prokaryotes
Eukaryote cell division is either by _____________ or ____________
Mitosis
Meiosis
Mitosis
The division of one cell to produce two genetically identical cells.
Meiosis
A diploid cell undergoes recombination of each pair of parental chromosomes and goes through two stages of cell division, resulting in four haploid cells (gametes).
Gamete
A haploid cell has a single complement of chromosomes.
DNA usually occurs in _______________ chromosomes in eukaryotes, and in ______________ chromosomes in prokaryotes
Linear
Circular
The set of chromosomes in a cell, and any other hereditary information found in mitochondria, chloroplasts or other locations is collectively known as its ____________________
Genome
In eukaryotes, DNA is primarily found in the ___________ with small amounts in ________________ and ________________
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts
In prokaryotes, DNA is found in the ________________
Nucleoid (an irregularly shaped body in the cytoplasm).
The ability of an open system to regulate its internal environment to maintain stable conditions is____________________
Homeostasis
The survival of a living organism requires the continuous input of _____________
Energy
The primary processes for converting the potential energy within chemical substances into actual energy capable of sustaining life are ___________________ and ________________
Metabolism
Cellular respiration
Metabolism
Enzyme-catalyzed reactions that allow organisms to grow, reproduce, maintain their structures and respond to their environments.
Catabolism
Breaks down organic matter from larger molecules to smaller ones to harvest energy in cellular respiration
Anabolism
Uses energy to construct components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids
Metabolism is typically divided into two categories: ______________ and ________________
Catabolism
Anabolism
All chemical reactions that occur within living organisms, including digestion and transport of substances into and between cells is called
Metabolism
The metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into ATP and then release waste are known as ________________________
Cellular respiration
The reactions involved in cellular respiration are
Catabolic reactions
Cellular respiration is considered an
Exothermic redox reaction
Anatomy is concerned with the forms of ________________ structures, such as ________________ and _________________ systems
Macroscopic
Organs
Organ
A phenotype is the composite of an organisms' ____________________ characteristics or traits
Observable
A ________________ is the inherited instructions an organism carries within its genetic code
Genotype
_____________________ studies the mechanical, physical and biochemical processes of living organisms by attempting to understand how the structures function as a whole (structure-to-function concept)
Physiology
Living things have traditionally been divided into these 6 kingdoms
Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Bacteria, Animalia
In the modern alternative classification systems for living things, what are the three domains?
Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota
In living things, what are the 8 (7 accepted) major taxonomic ranks?
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
How many phyla in kingdom Animalia?
Approximately 35
Humans belong to which phyla?
Chordata
Anatomy addresses __________________, while physiology addresses___________________
Structure
Function
Animal cells do not have a _________________ or __________________, and if they are present, ____________ are smaller than those found in plant cells.
Cell wall
Chloroplasts
Vacuoles
Animal body tissues can be grouped into four basic types:
Connective
Epithelial
Muscle
Nervous