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68 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Brain research has begun to show promise for improving teaching and learning, particularly among students with...
diverse learning needs
Newmann and Wehlage describe "authentic" learning as learning that
has meaning and significance
Which of the following is an example of a lower-order thinking skill?
reciting facts
All of the following are variables of the theory of planned behavior EXCEPT
functional knowledge and skills
According to the authors, student learning activities in elementary school should be
concrete and relevant
Elementary teachers are encourage to increase their health education knowledge by
participating in ongoing staff development
What government program was created to ensure that all children have a fair and equal opportunity to attain a quality education?
No Child Left Behind Act
Which of the following is TRUE regarding charter schools?
They must conform to certain state standards.
An accurate awareness of personal strengths and weaknesses is a characteristic of
intrapersonal intelligence.
Which of the following is an example of the theory of planned behavior variable of perceived behavioral control?
practicing saying no when offered alcohol by peers
Developmentally appropriate practice should be the foundation for sound classroom practice (T or F)
True
Schools must comply with local and state governing bodies, but not federal ones.
(T or F)
False
Students learn best when information or skills seem relevant to them. (T or F)
True
Social intelligence is the best predictor of life success.
(T or F)
False
Providing discovery learning opportunities is one of the characteristics of effective health education curriculum
(T or F)
False
Health behavior theories should be used by teachers to identify factors that are most likely to influence student behavior. (T or F)
True
Engaging students in lesson planning capitalizes on the elements of individually appropriate practice. (T or F)
True
HECAT was designed to enable school districts to analyze commercially or locally developed curricula.
(T or F)
False
Helping students accurately estimate the number of their peers who engage in an unhealthy behavior is an example of the perceived behavioral control variable of the theory of planned behavior.
(T or F)
False
The ability to use words effectively is a characteristic of interpersonal intelligence.
(T or F)
False
U.S. Education is grounded in decentalization

Responsibility for educating youth rests with the states

State mandates are interpreted by local school districts and put into practice.

Because of the grwoing number of educational options available to parents and students, it has become difficult to understand who is governing schools.
Influential Policymakers in the Education Community
Operate with public monies and conform to state standards and federal civil rights laws
(You can't discriminate)

Are granted autonomy in policy, curiculum, and program development
Charter and Community Schools
Are granted autonomy in policy, curriculum, and program development
Charter or Community Schools
Students are educated by parents or caregivers

Educational plans and records must be submitted to the state department of education

There is an increase in educational materials available.
Home Schooling
Initially proposed by politicians and education reform advocates.

A way for economically disadvantaged children to gain access to a wide range of schooling alternatives.

The Supreme Court ruled states have the right to distribute public tax dollars to parents to use for either public or private schools.
Tuition Vouchers
An established and historically significant educational alternative in the United States

Operate with a minimum of government influence and control

The majority of funding is generated from student tuition and fees.

Operate in full compliance with federal, state, and local laws.

Must respond to expectations of taxpayers.

Influential stakeholders have a voice in school policy and practice.
Private schools
Until recently, Congress specified that the government would maintain broad control in public education.

With the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 2002, the federal role in public education was expanded and strengthened.

Termed “No Child Left Behind,” this act is a multiyear national agenda to improve achievement of students.

This legislation allows the federal government to oversee specific activities in state agencies and local school districts regarding

- Improving student performance.
- Eliminating achievement gaps. (Based on statistics)
- Upgrading the qualifications of teachers and paraprofessionals (Every teacher has to take tests prior to teach)
Federal Influence
This federal law affecting public education policy and practice in all schools was built with a focus on: No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
- Accountability for results
- Emphasis on policies and instructional practices demonstrated by research to be effective
- Expansion of options for parents
- Extension of local control and flexibility in the management of schools
- Results have been mixed.
- Critics assert that funding and policy constraints have limited learning opportunities for disadvantaged and minority students.
- Some believe the accountability mandates have caused schools to narrow their instructional program.
No Child Left Behind
Federal Monitoring and Supervision of School Health Activities.

Various federal agencies are responsible for monitoring and supporting school-based health education and promotion activities; Federal Monitoring and Supervision of School Health Activities
- U.S. Department of Education manages the Safe and Drug-Free School and Communities grants.

- U.S. Department of Agriculture oversees school food service activities including National School Breakfast and Lunch Programs
Federal Monitoring and Supervision of School Health Activities.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) manages and supports
- HIV/AIDS education

- Implementation of Coordinated School Health Programs.

1) Health education
2) School health services
3) A healthy school environment
4) School counseling
5) Phycological and social services
6) Physical education
7) School nutrition services
8)O School-site health promotion for staff
Teaching Students with Exceptional Needs

_________ , the newly reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act incorporated NCLB mandates into educational programs for students with disabilities
In 2004
In 2004, the newly reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act incorporated NCLB mandates into educational programs for students with disabilities.

About 10% of American school-age children have been diagnosed with a specific disability.

Classroom teachers are an integral part of the team responsible for developing the Individualized Education Program (IEP) for students with disabilities.

To support student success, teachers must be able to implement a wide range of instructional strategies.
Teaching Students with Exceptional Needs
- The U.S. Constitution declared education to be the responsibility of each state.

- The state board of education (SBE) is responsible for policymaking, enforcement, and governance of public schools.

- The SBE is responsible for long-term goals and bipartisan leadership over a variety of matters, including school health programming.

- The SBE staff enforces regulations for federal and state programs.

- The SBE oversees many other programs, including those intended to promote student health.
State Influence
- School districts must comply with federal and state educational laws.

- Local school boards establish policies and practices governing day-to-day district operations.

- Most local school board members are elected.

- Collaborative policy development between local health and service agencies can be difficult.

- Due to lack of collaboration and communication, student services can be either replicated or completely overlooked.

- Superintendents can bridge the gap between the board of education and the educational needs of the students.

- Unions and other employee associations influence the budget and school operations.

- Daily operations are also influenced by principals, assistant principals, and “site-based management” teams.

- Research confirms the importance of engaging school, family, and community stakeholders in school policy and program implementation.
Local Influence
- Teachers are confronted with an increasingly diverse population of learners.

- A range of educational innovations has been proposed to improve instruction and maximize academic success for students.

- Many proposals to reform education are not based on educational theory or research and can undermine student learning if not planned and implemented with attention to how students learn.
Lessons from the Education Literature
Connecting Brain Research with Learning.

Brain-based research has begun to show promise for improving teaching and learning among students with diverse needs

Findings about acquiring and integrating knowledge: (4)
- Learning must occur within the context of what the learner already knows, has experienced, or understands.

- The student learns better when activities are repeated.

- Different parts of the brain store different information.

- Teachers should use a variety of techniques to increase learning.
______________ has been characterized as the best predictor of life success

Nerve pathways connect the emotional and cognitive processing centers in the brain.

Hormones alter brain chemistry when students are under stress and can impair memory and learning.
“Emotional intelligence”
- Make the environment challenging, yet supportive to help reduce stress

- Structure learning experiences that enable students to practice social skills and peer acceptance.

- Use humor, movement, or the expressive arts to engage students and ease instructional transitions.
Teachers are encouraged to use emotionally supportive classroom practices
- Students must practice thinking skills to be able to extend and refine knowledge.

- Classroom activities must extend beyond recognizing and memorizing.

- Students must practice manipulating information to use more complex retrieval and integration systems in the brain.
Findings About Extending and Refining Knowledge
- Design learning activities that require students to build on prior knowledge or experience.

- Provide model responses for students to compare to their work.

- Create rubrics that require students to develop models or visual representations of error patterns.

- Have opportunities for students to identify patterns of events and compare/contrast characteristics among ideas.
Teachers are encouraged to consider the following strategies
_________ that students learn best when they need information to reach a goal.

Experiential learning leads to higher-order thinking.

Physical activities should be paired with problem solving to enhance memory and learning.

Learning is enhanced for students who are able to establish and practice important mental habits.

Teachers are encouraged to review the literature on learning styles and multiple intelligences theory.
Research confirms
The brain is a complex __________

Learning involves the whole body and its processes.

The search for meaning is innate.

The brain searches for meaning by “patterning.”

Emotions are critical to “patterning.”

The brain processes parts and wholes simultaneously.

We understand and retain best when facts and skills are embedded in spatial memory.

Complex learning is enhanced by challenge, but is inhibited by threat.
“parallel processor.”
To improve classroom practice, maximize “authenticity” across learning activities.

“Authentic” learning is defined as learning that has meaning and significance.

Instructional approaches should be consistent with the following criteria:
- Use of higher-order thinking skills
- Depth of knowledge
- Meaning beyond the classroom
- Conversation about the subject
- High level of social support for the achievements of peers
________________ practice should serve as a foundation for sound teaching.

Research confirms developmentally appropriate practice is one of the best strategies for engaging children in meaningful learning.

______________ practice should relate to age-appropriate attributes and characteristics of individual students.
Developmentally appropriate
- Based on universal and predictable sequences of growth and change that occur in the various domains (i.e., physical, emotional, social) of all children.

- Age-appropriate cues serve as a foundation for instructional activities when teachers are unfamiliar with the learners
Age-appropriate activities
Teachers who are familiar with the learners are encouraged to use individually appropriate activities.

These activities are based on learning characteristics of each student
Individually appropriate activities
6 characteristics of deep understanding..
1) Explain
2) Interpret
3) applying it
4) Reflect on the perceptive
5) Emphasize
6) Self-aware
Age-Appropriate Activities and Individually Appropriate Activities.

Based on universal and predictable sequences of growth and change that occur in the various domains (i.e., physical, emotional, social) of all children.

Age-appropriate cues serve as a foundation for instructional activities when teachers are unfamiliar with the learners.
Age appropriate activites
Age-Appropriate Activities and Individually Appropriate Activities.

Teachers who are familiar with the learners are encouraged to use individually appropriate activities.

These activities are based on learning characteristics of each student.
Individually appropriate activities
Considerations for Developing Age- and Individually Appropriate Learning Strategies.

_________ content issues and health-promoting behaviors with other aspects of students’ lives
Connect
Considerations for Developing Age- and Individually Appropriate Learning Strategies.

Lesson planning is most effective when based on student characteristics, the subject literature, and teachers’ best _____________
professional judgments.
Considerations for Developing Age- and Individually Appropriate Learning Strategies.

_________ learn best in an environment that encourages exploration and interaction with materials, other children, teachers, and other adults
Students
Considerations for Developing Age- and Individually Appropriate Learning Strategies.

Learning activities should be concrete and relevant.

Flexibility, resourcefulness, and humor are good teacher qualities.

Activities should be structured to avoid sexist and culturally biased language, examples, and _____________
stereotypes
Instructional Strategies for Improving Achievement.

Effective classroom teachers can significantly influence student achievement.

One study showed that nine instructional strategies can make a strong and positive impact on student achievement:
- Identifying similarities and differences
- Summarizing and note taking
- Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
- Homework and practice
- Nonlinguistic representations (images of ideas)
- Cooperative learning
- Setting objectives and providing feedback
- Generating and testing hypotheses
- Cues, questions, and advance organizers
Developmental Missions of confronting students in elementary and middle school (12)
1) Sustain self-esteem
2) Be liked and accepted by peers
3) Fit in while remaining unique
4) Identlify acceptable role models
5) Question family beliefs/values
6) Earn respect with family
7) Sek independance/tests limits
8) Gather information/master skills
9) Accept physical appearnace
10) Manage fears
11) Control drives and desires
12) Define a realsistic sense of self.
Students learn best when…
- Information and skills seem relevant.

- They are actively engaged in the learning process.

- Learning experiences are organized.

- Learning experiences enable them to derive their own conclusions.

- They become emotionally involved with or committed to the topic.

- They can interact with others.

- Information can be put to immediate use or skills can be practiced.

- They recognize the reason for or value of the information or tasks to be mastered.

- Positive teacher-learner relationships are cultivated.

- A variety of teaching methods and learning strategies are used.
The State of the Art in Health Education.

Comprehensive health education programs are designed to promote healthy living and discourage health-risk behaviors.
- Educational stakeholders are encouraged to examine educational elements that meet the needs of the widest range of learners.

- The health education classroom should include heterogeneous groups of students.
Translating Health Education Theory into Practice.

Elementary and middle-school teachers must use limited instructional time for health education wisely:
Follow a planned, sequential course of study.
Focus on functional knowledge and essential skills.
Translating Health Education Theory into Practice.

Health behavior theories can help guide teachers in planning lessons:
Theory of planned behavior
- Attitudes toward the behavior
- Subjective norms
- Perceived behavioral control
Supporting Sound Teaching.

Planned and intentional health education should start in elementary school.

As years of health instruction increase, so do student health knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors.

One of the biggest barriers to health education in the elementary schools is lack of teacher preparation by colleges and universities.

Staff development programming is one way to refine teacher expertise across a range of __________.
health topics
Health Education Curriculum.

Health education activities and learning experiences that provide students with opportunities to acquire functional knowledge, practice essential skills, and evaluate attitudes that are necessary to make health-promoting decisions, achieve health literacy, and adopt health-enhancing __________.
behaviors
- A set of intended learning outcomes

- A progressive sequence (order) of lessons or learning experiences

- Continuity between lessons or learning experiences that reinforce specific healthy behaviors

- Content or resource materials

- Assessment strategies
Common Elements of a Sound Health Education Curriculum.
- Few health curricula with evidence of effectiveness exist

- Few curricula target multiple health risk behaviors.

- Many curricula have not been rigorously evaluated.

- Schools are often unable to implement a curriculum as it was intended.
Barriers to Implementing School Health Programs.
HECAT: Health Education Curriculum Analysis Tool.

- Developed by the ________
- Contains guidance, tools, and resources to conduct an analysis of health education curriculum
- Can assist districts in selecting or developing curriculum
- Designed to enable districts to analyze commercially or locally developed curricula
CDC
Involving Children in Curriculum Planning.

Advantages of involving children in the curriculum-planning process:
- Opportunity to practice communication skills.

- Connects health issues to other content areas.

- Enriches the classroom because it capitalizes on individually appropriate practices.
Involving Children in Curriculum Planning.

Four-step question procedure for engaging students in planning...


Teachers and students are both rewarded when students help plan curricula.
What do you wonder?
What can we do to find out?
What materials do we need?
What will you bring (do)? What would you like me to bring (do)?
- Focuses on specific behavioral outcomes

- Is research-based and theory driven

- Addresses individual values and group norms

- Focuses on increasing perception of risks involved in risky behaviors and reinforces protective factors

- Addresses social pressures

- Builds personal and social competence.

- Provides functional health knowledge

- Uses strategies to personalize information and engage students

- Provides developmentally and age-appropriate information, learning activities, teaching methods, and materials

- Incorporates culturally inclusive learning strategies, teaching methods, and materials

- Emphasizes adequate instructional time

- Provides opportunities to reinforce skills and positive health behaviors

- Provides opportunities to connect with influential others

- Includes teacher information and professional development opportunities
Characteristics of Effective Health Education Curricula