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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

3 approaches to defining stress

stimulus, response, process

2 early contributions to stress that say stress is a physiological response

walter cannon- flight vs. fight

selye- The General Adaptation Syndrome

____ activates the flight-or-fight response


"body adapts to stressor" describes which stage of GAS


"body is aroused and mobilized" described which stage of GAS


"energy reserves depleted" describes which stage of GAS


the physiological effects of prolonged stress is caused by which system?

the hypothamalic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) system

The adrenal cortex releases corticosteroids (cortisol) which:_________, _________, _________, __________. It is because of this that the body gets exhausted if activated for too long.

release stored energy, provide fuel for flight-or-flight, increase blood pressure and suppress the immune system

modern definition of stress

a condition that results when person-environment transactions lead to a perceived discrepancy between situations demands and the person biopsychosocial resources for coping with these demands

true or false: stress can also occur when resources are underused

true: causes boredom

stress is a _________ state


difference between overt and covert coping efforts

overt- action oriented

covert- psychological

two types of coping

problem-focused coping, emotion focused coping

specific strategies for problem-focused coping

actively confront the situation(change it, fact it and overcome demands), planful problem solving, suppress competing activities, seek information social support advice

specific strategies for emotion-focused coping

distancing, self-control, positive appraisals, accepting responsibility, escape-avoidance, seek emotional social support

explain rational emotive therapy

can reduce stress by changing irrational beliefs

The ABCD model is part of which therapy?

rational emotive therapy

Explain ABCD model

Activating environmental even

irrational beliefs

emotional consequences

disputing beleifs

3 terms for irrational beleifs

awfulizing, can't-stand-itis, musterbation

3 types of sensory receptors

mechano-receptors, thermo receptors, pain receptors

"touch, pressure, vibration and movement" would be an example of which sensory receptor


when do we accurately percieve bodily sensations

when they are pervasive and strong

true or false: outdoor joggers run slower and report more fatigue than indoor joggers


explain "the ultrasonic noise study"

played noise that you can't hear for 2 minutes, told the noise will influence finger temperature, asked to report finger temp. on a scale of 1(cold)-100(warm), when told sound would increase finger temp (reported 70), when told decrease (48), when told nothing (58)

psychological factors that influence perceiving symptoms

focus of attention, cognitive set, expectations, emotions, prior learning

illness representations influence

interpretation of new information, decisions to see treatment, adherence to medication regimes, expectations for future health, responses to health-relevant behaviour

telling people to do things can __________ and get them to do ________________

backfire; the opposite

example of when telling people to do something backfired

Coca-cola- 1985 tried to replace old coke with a new formula, said you need to like the new coke, people demanded for the old coke back despite liking the new formula

explain the theory of psychological reactance

we have "free behaviours"- the ability to perform AND right to perform. threatening a free behaviour produces psychological reactance (unpleasant state of tension). people are motivated to restore freedom by doing exactly what they were told not to

what is an example that supports the theory of psychological resistance

censorship, when music is banned in one country, it increases sales in another eg. Marilyn Manson

high reactance occurs when

there are no available alternatives to the threatened behaviour

what is a real world example of the theory of psychological resistance


the wise physician will

attempt to reduce the magnitude of reatance

5 factors that influence the magnitude of reactance

magnitude of threat

importance of free behaviour

confidence that we possess a free behaviour

threat is perceived as illegitimate or unjustified

available alternative to threatened behaviour

how can things be unlearned?

change the antecedents and consequences

5 steps to changing behaviour

specify problem behaviour

gather baseline data

design BM program

execute program

evaluate effectiveness of program