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19 Cards in this Set

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How many standard drinks is it recommended for a person to have per day?

It is recommended that people have no more than two a day and four on any given occasion

Which age groups are advised to delay alcohol consumption for as long as possible?

between 15-17 years old

How often do we break the recommended dosage for alcohol consumption?

Over 50%

Has smoking reduced since 1991?

Yes. Introduction of tax and encouragement of anti-smoking behaviour has resulted in a degrease in smokers.
Males smoke more than females.

Communicable disease vs non-communicable diseases

Communicable disease: Caused by the spread of bacteria or viruses. (Example: the common cold)
Non communicable diseases: Not due to bacteria or viruses, but genetic predisposition, lifestyle and enviroment. (diet, exercises and drug consumption.

How many deaths are non-communicable in Australia

90%

Why was there a decrease in commuicable diseases after 1980

Better medication

Which theories are most associated with health related behaviour

Behaviourism and classical conditioning (reward and behaviour)


Limitation is according to this mindset, we engage in behaviours that end with a reward BUT in practice there is an inconsistancy between rewards and costs of behaviour

Hall and Fong

Temporal cell regulation theory. (theory for motivation in health behaviors)
Main idea: The biggest issue in health modification behavior is temporal proximity (where do the main "costs" of performing a behavior kick in.

Hall and Fong explanation for why people do not like investing in physical explanation for physical exertion

The costs have to be overcame at a time where the benefits are not evident.

Expectancy X Theory

Idea: All of our attitudes towards objects (alcohol/cigarettes) is the sum of the product about the strength of what we believe is going to happen.
Eg. Eating cake = positive. It is delicious

Drive theory

Fear causes emotional tension causing the individual to make an adaptive behavioral change
eg. picutres on the back of a packet should cause people to stop smoking

Study by Shutz

Used a personalized way of highlighting negative consequences of tanning and unprotected.
They found that people who found it important to be tanned went into the sun even more (reactant effect)

Reactance Effect

Causing someone to fear stimuli causes tension. However unless the person is told what to do with that fear, they will engage in defensive motivation and continue with problematic behavior by disreguarding information

Do fear appeals work?

No. Not alone, unless efficacy messages are offered.

Why dont we do whats good for us?

-Benefits of whats good for us is in the distal future


-Benefits of whats bad for us are rewarded quickly

Defense motivation

Counter attitudinal information. Arguments that are incompatible with an individuals beliefs are judged weaker.
It does not matter what the content is. It matters whether it matches with prior beliefs.

Motivated reasoning

Cognitive bias applied to reduce the negative emotion that we may encounter whilst performing a risky behavior.


By doing this, we maintain a positive sense of self and self.

Self affirmation theory

Everyone has a self system (an idea of who we are) and the system motivates us to have a positive perception of ourselves.


If there is a threat to a domain (health), the system becomes established - defensive processes are activated to retain a positive impression of self.