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24 Cards in this Set

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biased sampling
The tendency for groups to spend more time discussing shared information (information already known by all or most group members) than unshared information) information known by only one or a few group members.
brainstorming
A technique that attempts to increase production of creative ideas by encouraging group members to speak freely without criticizing their own or others' contributions.
collective effort model
The theory that individuals will exert effort on a collective task to the degree that they think their individual efforts will be important, relevant, and meaningful for achieving outcomes that they value.
deindividuiation
A cultural orientation in which interdependence, cooperation, and social harmony take priority over personal goals.
distraction–conflict theory
A theory that the presence of others will produce social faciliation effects only when those others distract from the task and create attentional conflict.
escalation effect
The condition in which commitments to a failing course of action are increased to justify investments already made.
evluation apprehension theory
The theory that the presence of others will produce social facilitation effects only when those others are seen as potential evaluators.
graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction (GRIT)
A strategy for unilateral and persistent efforts to establish trust and cooperation between opposing parties.
group
A set of individuals who interact over time and have shared fate, goals, or identity.
group cohesiveness
The extent to which forces push group members closer together, such as through feelings of intimacy, unity, and commitment to group goals.
group polarization
The exaggeration of initial tendencies in the thinking of group members through group discussion.
group support systems
Specialized interactive computer programs that are used to guide group meetings, collaborative work, and decision–making processes.
groupthink
A group decision–making style characterized by an excessive tendency among group members to seek concurrence.
integrative agreement
A negotiated resolution to a conflict in which all parties obtain outcomes that are superior to what they would have obtained from an equal division of the contested resources.
mere presence theory
The proposition that the mere presence of others is sufficient to produce social faciliation effects.
prisoner's dilemma
A type of dilemma in which one party must make cooperative or competitive moves in relation to another party. The dilemma is typically designed so that the competitive move appears to be in one's self–interest, but if both sides make this move, they both suffer more than if they had both cooperated.
process gain
The increase in group performance so that the group outperforms the individuals who comprise the group.
process loss
The reduction in group performance due to obstacles created by group proc
resource dilemma
Social dilemmas involving how two or more people will share a limited resource.
social dilemma
A situation in which a self–interested choice by everyone will create the worst outcome for everyone.
social facilitation
A process whereby the presence of others enhances performance on easy tasks but impairs performance on difficult tasks.
social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE)
A model of group behaviour that explains deindividuation effects as the result of a shift from personal identity to social identity.
social loafing
A group–produced reduction in individual output on tasks where contributions are pooled.
transactive memory
A shared system for remembering information that enables multiple people to remember information together more efficiently than they could do so alone.