• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Questions to ask specifically regarding the Sx of pain?

Site, Radiation, Character and Pattern (eg Colicky?), Aggravating and Alleviating factors, Frequency and Duration

Red Flag Q's for abdo complaint?

Any blood in vomit?

Unintended Weight loss?

Early satiety?


Does pain suggest an MI? - radiating to jaw/down L arm?


Blood in stool - malena or hematochezia?

Bowel habits changed?

Hx of polyps or Ca?

Dx this common disorder:

Dull or burning episodic pain in epigastrium often at night waking the patient. Relieved somewhat by food and antacids

Peptic or duodenal ulcer

Dx this:

Chronic epigastric pain often radiating posteriorly with Nausea and Vom. Pain can be alleviated by sitting up and leaning forwards.

Pancreatic pain

Dx this GIT problem:

45yo man presents with 12hr Hx of Naus and chronic epigastric/RUQ pain radiating posteriorly. Afebrile, otherwise well.

Biliary colic

DDx for colicky pain in anterior abdomen?


Bowel obstruction


DDx and brief Mgmt for this case: 45yomale presented with 12hr chronic central abdo pain 6/10 with cyclical 8/10sharp pain. Paracetamol did little. Over time pain shifted to LLQ and into Lgroin. Afebrile, developed N/V after 24hr, no change bowel habits. Headache, ?Dehydrated?.

DDx: Diverticulitis, Renal calculi, Bowel obstruction, Volvulus, Perf bowel, Viral colitis

Mgmt: Pain relief, hydration (IV), abdo CT, antibiotics, antiemetics, monitor vitals.

Bloody hard Dx to crack:

87yofemale BIB ambo after waking at 3am to urinate and experienced 3 episodes ofintense sweating, feeling hot and nausea on a background of 4/7 constant upperabdo pain rated 7/10 which was alleviated by remaining supine. Pt reports nochest pain or symptoms of CVD, denies fever, wt loss, vomiting, UTI, loss ofappetite. Pt suffers from GORD.

GI Bleed from subcapsular hepatic tumour.

What are the 3 physiological causes of diarrhoea and their symptomology?

1. Secretory - lumen secretion>absorption. Often caused by infection (E. coli, Staph aureas, Cholera), hormonal imbalance (VIP-secreting tumour), adenoma. Sx = fasting doesn't stop diarrhoea, it just keeps on coming!

2. Osmotic - due to excess solute drag, eg lactose intolerance. Sx - fasting will stop D.

3. Increased intestinal mobility - IBD, thyrotoxicosis, anything increasing Ach/Parasymp activity.

Causes of dysphagia?

Stricture of oesophagus

Carcinoma of oesophagus

Eosinophilic oesophagitits

Foreign body

Goitre - mass effect

Mediastinal tumour - mass effect


Oesophageal spasm


Cricopharyngeal dysfunction - Zenkers diverticulum

Neurological disease

Causes of constipation (generally)?

Medications/drugs (eg opiates, Parasymp antags...)




Neurological - autonomic neuropathy, MS...

Obstruction - cancer/polyp, abscess, diverticulum, foetus

3 causes of asterixes?




Common DDx of RUQ pain?


Biliary colic

Ascending cholangitis


gastric ulcer

choledocolithiasis (CBD stone)

Investigations for RUQ pain?

Bloods: FBC, UEC, LFTs, coags, CRP (the BS test), lipase (or amylase).

Imaging: CT abdo and/or U/S, CXR. If warranted - ERCP/MRCP

Who is at risk of cholecystitis?

Hint: there is a mnemonic for this.

The 5 F's.

Fat, 40, Female, Fertile and Fare

Treatment for cholecystitis?

Laproscopy - ERCP to determine patency and remove stone

What symptoms would differentiate cholecystitis from ascending cholangitis (AC)?

AC = significant fever which can result in bacteraemia/septicaemia resulting in unstable vitals, reduced GCS and med emergency... better call Tim!

Mnemonic for causes of pancreatitis?

I - idiopathic

G - gall stones

E - EtOH

T - trauma

S - steroids

M - mumps

A - autoimmune

S - scorpion venom

H - hyperlipid, hyperparathyroid, hypothermia


D - drugs

Management of pancreatitis?

Pain relief and fluids. ERCP to remove stone if one present. That's all. Next stop Whipple's.

DDx of appendicitis in:

A) children

B) elderly

C) females

D) General

A) Meckels diverticulitis, mesenteric adenitis

B) diverticulitis, carcinoma, etc

C) ruptured ovarian cyst, ectopic preg

D) Mesenteric adenitis, infection (colitis, gastroenteritis), UTI, adnexal/gynae (ovarian cyst),

3 causes of Dupuytren's contracture?

1. Alcoholism

2. Hereditary

3. Overuse Trauma

Causes of hepatomegaly?



T - trauma

I - infection - fungal/bact/parasitic/viral

M - metabolic - NASH, Wilsons, alpha1 anti-tryp...

M - ?

O - Other

C - Cardiac

K - neoplastic

E - endocrine

D - drugs

Presenting complaint of diverticulitis?

Pain - constant and rhythmical

N and V

D and C

Fever (not always)

reduced appetite

distended abdo

tender, palpable mass sometimes

Complications of diverticulitis?

Abscess can form

Obstruction of bowel - narrowing due to inflam

Fistula formation - bladder or vagina to colon

Perf bowel - peritonitis

DDx for diverticulitis?

Ischamic bowel

Bowel obstruction




Infective colitis


Bowel obstruction


Adnexal pain

Ovarian cyst

What is the pathophys of leuconychia in liver disease?

Hypoalbuminaemia causing opacity of the nail bed

Why do you check the parotid glands in a GIT exam?

Alcoholism can cause parotid enlargement (parotiditis)

2 symptoms of Wilson's disease?

Kaiser-Fleischer rings in eyes (brown/green rings around cornea)

Blue Lunulae (nail root - most proximal part)

Causes of Splenomegally?

Cirrhosis of liver - portal HTN

Infection - CMV, malaria, EBV

Haematological - Leukaemia, Lymphoma, thalasaemia, sickle cell anaemia, AI haemolytic anaemia

Infiltration - Amyloidosis, Sarcoidosis


How do you differentiate between spleen and kidney on examination?

On percussion spleen is dull, kidney resonant as bowel sits over top of it.

Cannot get over spleen due to ribs

Spleen moves inferiorly with inspiration, kidney doesn't

Spleen has a palpable notch

What are diff types of hernias and where do they occur?

Indirect Inguinal - abdo viscera gets into the internal deep inguinal ring then protrudes through external inguinal ring on way toward testes. This ring starts LATERAL to Mid-Inguinal point. Hernia can strangulate.

Direct Inguinal - into the external ring of inguinal canal through weakened wall (in area called Hasselbach's triangle). This ring is MEDIAL to MIP. Hernia rarely strangulates

Umbilical (direct)

Femoral - through the femoral canal. Often strangulate. Common in women

Incisional hernia - post abdo surgery - repair with mesh

Causes of Jaundice?

Pre, Intra and Posthepatic.



Infectious hepatitis

Carcinoma head of pancreas

Haemolytic anaemia

Intrahepatic causes of jaundice?

PBC, PSC, infection, drugs, metabolic disorders, cirrhosis, HCV, HBV, neoplasm,

Most common causes of GI bleed in

A) upper and B) lower GIT?

A) Gastric ulcer, oesophageal varices, duodenal ulcer, gastritis, Mallory-Weiss

B) Diverticulitis (60%), anorectal conditions, angiodysplasia, IBD, cancer

2 main types of gall bladder stones?

Cholesterol and Pigment (bilirubin)