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206 Cards in this Set

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How do waves effect shorelines

generated by wind, erode rock, and deposits/moves sediment



How do rivers effect the shoreline

sediment accumulates forming a delta

how does wind effect the shoreline

move sand depending on wind direction

how do offshore currents effect the shoreline

effects thickness of water and can push shallow water in one direction and deeper water in another

how does faulting effect the shoreline

can raise parts of the coast above sea level or drop them

Slope of the seafloor

steep slopes allow large waves to break directly against rocks, gentle slopes cause waves to break a short distance offshore

Wave directions changes with the ...

seasons

Factors on the landside of the shoreline

hard/soft rock, wet/dry climate, and long narrow inlets and bays

wet climate

abundant precipitation for erosion, formation of soil and vegetation

dry climate

less vegetation, less soil, less stable slopes

Tides

cyclic changes in height of the sea surface

high tide

water at its highest point every 12 hours 25 minutes

low tide

water at its lowest point every 12 hours 25 minutes

How tides relate to position of the moon

water in ocean is pulled by gravity causing it to mound up on the side of earth nearest to moon, areas beneath mound experience high tide, not facing low tide



Moon and earth for tides

Earth rotates faster than the moon so area experience tow high tides and two low tides in 24 hours 50 minutes

spring tides

sun and moon are on same side of the earth, extra gravitational pull causes extreme tides

neap tides

lower than average high tides and higher than average low tides, when moon is pulling on one side and sun on another

Parts of the wave

trough, crest, wavelength, wave height, and depth of wave base

trough

lowest part of the wave

crest

highest part of the wave

wavelength

distance between crests

wave height

distance between trough and crest

depth of wave base

wavelength/2

motion of water within a wave

water within wave push against water in front of it, goes through 3 points and moves in circular path

point A

shallow water moves more then point B

Point B

deeper moves less than point A

Point C

below wave base does not move

Picture of Points

Why do waves rise and break as it reaches shallow water?

gas molecules collide with surface of water, forms waves that gradually get bigger

break

wave becomes to steep and falls

whitecap

white, foamy water from a break

surf zone

where wave breaks

what happens when wave reaches shallow water

when a wave reaches water that is shallower than wave base, increases wave size, decreases wavelength

Why do waves bend if they approach the shore at an angle

segments closest to shore slow down and difference in velocity cause waves to be parallel to shore

How do waves erode material

waves crash against shoreline, breaking off pieces of bedrock

Factors accompanied with wave erosion

wave notch, wave cut platform

wave notch

undercuts overlying rock, leaving them unsupported and prone to collapse

wave cut platform

waves wash sand and stones across sea bottom and smooth off underlying bedrock

What happens after rocks are broken off?

water smashs rocks together rounding them off and making larger rocks smaller, helps future erosion

Promontory

ridge of the land that juts out from the water

How does sand move to the beach

storms, wind, longshore drift, after wave break

after wave break

water flows downslope carrying most of the sand with it

storms

larger waves carry more sediment and erodes more

wind

carries sand long distances, not if it is wet

longshore drift

waves come at an angle and sand moves laterally back into the sea

sediment budget

amount of sediment available to the system

how do rivers effect amount of sand

provide sediment to the system

dunes

sand blown onto the beach or from land

Waves and amount of sand

erode reefs and offshore islands carrying more sediment

white sand beach origin

com from eroded coral reef and shells

sea stack

forms at a promontory, wave focuses erosion on front and sides which creates a cave and eventual sea stack

spit

forms when waves and longshore currents transport sand along coast building long mound lengthening in the direction of the current

baymouth bar

if spit grows it can cut off a bay, bar shelters bay from moves and allows it to be filled with sediment

barrier islands

sea level rises

Features of cape cod

large spit, also bars and barrier islands, most sediment was deposited by glaciers 18,000 years ago

seawall

consist of concrete, steel, or other strong material, built in rip rap form, there is loss of beach in front of wall

rip rap

large rocks and other debris is locally dumped on shoreline to armor the coast

jetty

juts out into the water, usually protects sides of shipping channel

consequences of a jetty

focus waves and currents on adjacent stretches of the coast

breakwater

built out in water to bear the brunt of the wave and current, parallel to the coast to protect the beach

Galveston Texas after Hurricane Ike

had 10-13 ft waves

Where does most of earths water reside

oceans - 96.5% of water

Where does freshwater occur and at what percent?

Ice caps/glaciers - 68.7%


Groundwater - 30.1%


Surface water - .3%

Surface water, where and what percent?

Lakes - 87%


Swamps - 11 %


Rivers - 2%

Hydrological cycle

evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, transpiration, surface runoff

Evaporation

water heated by sun rises to atmosphere

Condensation

water vapor cools, forming clouds

precipitation

falls down to earth as rain, snow, or hail

sublimation

water molecules go from solid to vapor, common in polar regions

Infiltration

precipitation seeps into the ground

Ground water flow

water infiltrates and flows in the subsurface

transpiration

water taken in by plants emit water vapor into the atmosphere

surface runoff

carried to ocean by river, streams, lakes

oceans gains and losses

loses more water to evaporation than it gains from precipitation

saturated zone

area below water table where water flows

porosity

proportion of open space in a rock

high porosity

well rounded, well sorted

low porosity

angular, poorly sorted,

clay sediments

abundant space

permeability

ability to transmit fluid

high permeability

loosely cemented material, well connected fractures

low permeability

clay compacts parallel to one another

How do water towers and tanks mimic a natural artesian condition

water is at higher elevation and it is pumped out under pressure

factors that control rate of groundwater flow

gravity, size of slope, permeability

Fastest groundwater flow

steep slope and high permeability

unconfined

not restricted by impermeable rocks

confined

seperate from Earths surface, under impermeable rock

artesian aquifer

confined under pressure pushes water up

recharge

replenishment of water to the system

When water table intersects the surface

water flows onto the land, adds water to lakes and rivers

Requirements for a spring

unconformity, and faults

unconformity

sedimentary unit above is permeable, ex. limestone

faults

permeable through fractures

how are lakes and wetlands related to groundwater

both replenish supply of water

gaining stream

recieves water from inflow of groundwater, lower elevation than water table

losing stream

lose water from outflow of groundwater

how can stream disappear?

if it crosses from less permeable to more permeable material

caves

form in carbonate rocks because other don't dissolve as easy

acid rain

dissolves rock, like limestone

most caves

below water table, if water table table falls exposes caves to air and roof can collapse

sinkhole

collapse of roof of cave at the surface

karst topography

sinkholes, caves, limestone pillars, poorly organized drainage pattern, disappearing streams

travertine

when limestone dissolves the dissolved material is reprecipitated when groundwater flows onto the surface

stalactites

water dripping from roof evaporates and leaves behind calcium carbonate

Stalagmites

water drips to floor, building mounds upward of calcium carbonate

flowstone

water flowing down the walls precipitates as calcium carbonate

feature that indicate a cave at depth

sinkholes, skylight, limestone, karst topography

evidence that glaciers once covered the landscape

cirques, tarns, anetes, u shaped valley, eskers, moraine, large rocks, and polished surface

glacial erratic

glacier transports large rock than melts leaving the rock behind

increase in glaciation

ocean has heavier isotopes

decrease in glaciation

ocean has lighter isotopes

What parts of the Northern hemisphere were covered by the ice age

Canada to northern parts of America, covered northern Asia, Europe, and Alps of southern Europe

Evidence of past glaciation in the United States

smoothed landscape south of the great lakes, recessional moraines, pollen evidence

difference between ice age and glacial-interglacial stages

glacial-interglacial are periods of time, ice age is series of glacial stages

what type are we currently in?

interglacial period

How does earth's rotation and orbit influence global climate

tilt, precession, and eccentricity

Maximum tilt

24.5 degrees increases effect of the seasons

present day tilt

23.5 degrees

minimum tilt

22.5 degrees, high latitudes don't recieve sunlight

precession

wobble of rotation changes from north star to vega, lasts 23,000 years

eccentricity

shape of orbit sometimes more circular or eliptical

How is global climate affected by atmospheric gases

Increase in Co2 and methane warm the planet

How does ash and dust affect global climate

allows less sunlight to the surface

how does more snow affect global climate

white snow reflects sun rays back

upwelling currents

bring deep cold water to surface, cools land, and perhaps allow glaciation

cold currents

can cause glaciation, leads to less snowfall

warm currents

warms adjacent parts of continent, can increase precipitation

continental position

land deflects or blocks connection between different oceans

global warming

increasing global atmospheric and ocean temperatures

what is global warming measured by?

past climatic condition called proxy evidence

Thermometer record

temperature for last 140 years

Tree ring proxy

climate record going back more than 1,200 years

ice core proxy

yearly layers of winter precipitation, drill and analyze blocks

NAS conclusion on global warming

some global warming has occured, .6 degrees celcius in last 100 years

greenhouse effect

sunlight trapped by interactions with the earth

variations in solar radiance

higher solar activity changes temperature


infrared radiation

emitted after gases absorb it from Earth

cone of depression

caused by overpumping

how can cone of depression spread pollution

all groundwater in area flows towards larger well another well could be contaminated

subsidence

water table drops and thickness of unsaturated zone increases, increases compaction of sediment causing land to subside

Fissures

granite cannot compact so it develops open fissures

saltwater incursion

overpumping can draw saltwater into wells near the coast

ways that surface water can be contaminated

weathering of rocks, petroleum, landfills, human waste, farms, gas stations, manufacturing, and houses

weathering rocks

release chemical elements into the water

plume of contamination

moves parallel to groundwater flow and spreads out from source

How to investigate contamination of groundwater

chemical analysis, pump wells to see how other wells react

contour elevations

to see which way water is flowing

remediation

drilling wells in front of contamination and pumping it out and cleaning it

Morgantown water supply

Mon river

where does organic material in petroleum come from?

microorganisms, plants, reefs

source rock

rock with enough organic material to make petroleum

how does oil and gas move to surface

flow through pores, oil and gas are buoyant so they rise

Oil getting stuck under surface

trapped by impermeable rock

oil sands

oil rises to sandy area

oil seep

oil flow to the surface

reservoir rock

rock where hydrocarbons accumulate

condition where many oil and gas fields are?

anticlines

impermeable seal

if reservoir rock is capped by a seal it accumulates at the crest

salt dome

salt rises to escape pressure pushing upwards, arching of rocks trap petroleum

Fault

pushes it against impermeable rock

thrust

causes folding as rock layers move creating an anticline and trapping it

facies

petroleum trapped when decrease in thickness or change in character of rock

Appalachian Basin

New York to Tennessee

Williston Basin

Montana, north and south dakota

Marcellus Shale in WV

present below surface not everywhere, not extreme eastern or western WV

how to get marcellus shale

horizontal drilling, pumping sand and water down to create fractures, let gas come up

fracking fluid

99% water and sand other harmful chemicals

Myths about hydraulic fracturing

pose no risk to water supply, no evidence of fracking fluid reaching water, all hydraulic fluid is recovered

ice sheets

continuous masses of ice, largest accumulation

piedmont glacier

ice flows out of mountains into broader area

valley glacier

flow down valleys

Places that have ice sheets and glaciers

greenland, antartica, alaska, rocky mountains, himalayas, and other high regions

How is snow turned to ice

pressure of snow piling on top of itself recrystallizes into small interlocking crystals

Equilibrium line

losses of ice and snow balance snowfall

below equilibrium

blue ice exposed and melts farther away

above equilibrium

snow keeps getting piled on top

Why glaciers move

move because ice isn't strong enough to support its own weight against gravity

bedrock and glaciers

glacier can lock to irregular bedrock

moving parts of glacier when encountering a sea or lake

upper part of glacier flows faster than the lower part

calving

ice on edge of glacier collapses into water

iceberg

broken off pieces of ice in ocean, 90% below water

ice shelf

large ice sheet floating on seawater

Melting glaciers cause

u shaped valleys, poorly sorted sediment

glacial strations

ice sheet flows across surface smoothing and polishing rocks

cirque

bowl shaped depression caused by ice attaching to bedrock

tarn

lake inside of cirque

arete

jagged ridge caused by glacial erosion and weathering

hanging valley

glaciers melt leaving side valleys higher than main valley

moraine

sediment carried by and deposited by a glacier

lateral moraine

form on sides, when glacier melts form low ridges

medial moraine

sediment rich belt in the center of glacier when two glaciers join

terminal moraine

form at termination of glacier, marks it furthest movement

till

as glacier melts it deposits sediments in sheets, piles, and ridges

shape of till

resembles teardrops pointed in the direction the ice flowed

drumlin

hill of till

meltwater

carves tunnels through and along base of glacier

eskers

long sinuous ridges of sediment deposited by meltwater

kettle

leaves behind blocks of ice which melt and cause a depression

glacial outwash

produce large rives that carry sediment away

recessional moraines

forms hill when receding that is parallel to glacier

Ice age lakes

Lake Missoula, Lahontan, and Bonneville

Lake Missoula

filled low, interconnected basins in the Rocky Mountains, shoreline etched horizontal lines into hills surrounding lake

Lake Lahontan

filled low basins of western Nevada

Lake Bonneville

dried up leaving a salt flat

Origin of glacial lake Monongahela

Laurentide ice sheet

3 modern rivers in drainage system of Pittsburgh

allegheny, ohio, and monongahela