• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Biology?
The study of life.
How is something defined as living?
Organized, Acquire Materials and Energy, Respond to their enviornment, Reproduce, and Adapt.
Where in Biology do we see uniformity and where do we see diversity?
Uniformity=Reflects a common ancestor. Diversity=Arisen through evolution.
What are the steps of the scientific method?
Observation, Question, Hypothesis, Prediction, Experiment, Analysis.
What can and can't the scientific method be used to evaluate?
Can=Anything that can be determined empirically. Can't=any non-empirical.
What is a Redox Reaction? Why is it important in biology?
RR=one compound is oxidized, the other is reduced. It is important because it occurs in every type of bond.
What 4 elements make up 96% of living matter?
HONC=Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon.
What are the properties of water and why is it important that ice floats?
Water=Polar, Hydrogen Bonding, High Specific Heat, High Heat Vaporization, Less Dense as a Solid, Good Solvent. Ice floats because its less dense as a solid.
What are the four organic (macro) molecules (monomers and polymers)?
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids.
How are proteins denatured? Why does it matter?
Change in PH, Temp., or Salt Concentration. Causes a loss of function if it occurs.
What are the jobs of the Nucleus, Mitochondria, and Chloroplast?
Nuclues=Brain, Mitochondria=Power House Chloroplast=Photosynthesis (plants)
What are membranes composed of and what are their functions?
Phospholipids, create a barrier to protect cell and control traffic in and out of the cell.
Compare and Contrast Active and Passive types of membrane transport.
Passive=diffusion no energy required going with the flow. Active=requies energy going against the flow.
How do you kill a plant or animal cell with osmosisi?
Plant=Hypertonic, Animal=Hypotonic.
What is Cellular Respiration? What is Fermentation?
C.R.=Extraction of Energy from organic molecules Glucose to ATP. F=Anabolic respiration (w/o oxygen)
Where do humans get their energy? (ATP)
Humans get ATP from various foods and it is produced in the Krebs cycle.
What is Photosynthesis?
Capturing light energy from the sun and converting it to chemical energy stored in sugars.
How are Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis related? Which one has a faster rate? How do we know?
Photosynthesis is countered by cell respiration. They use each others products as substrates.
Why are plants green?
Chlorophyll because it mainly absorbs light in the red and blue spectrum.
Why is life dependent on photosynthesis?
What is the purpose of meiosis and mitosis?
Mitosis=Asexual cloning. Meiosis=Sexual reproduction. The purpose of both is cellular reproduction.
What is crossing over and why is it important?
Occurs in prophase I of meiosis and it is when homologous chromosomes line up and genetic information can be exchanged.
Who is Mendel, and what did he discover?
Gregor Mendel began breeding his peas in 1857 to deduce heritability. He discovered that an inheritable unit could be passed on to offspring.
What is a gene and what is an allele?
A gene is the character (flower color) An Allele is a variant (purple flowers).
What is the difference between dominant and recessive alleles?
D=written with a big letter. R=written with a little letter. in relation with each other.
Who are James Watson and Francis Crick? What did they discover?
Scientists that unveiled the structure of DNA. Awarded the Nobel prize in 1962.
What is the central dogma, why is this central to all biology?
The one way process that a gene will create a protein.
Compare and Contrast transcription to translation.
Transcription=the production of mRNA from a DNA template. Translation=the production of a protein from an mRNA template by a ribosome.
Compare and contrast DNA to RNA.
DNA=In the nuclues RNA=created and processed parts of the DNA.
What is a codon? Why is it important?
Specific set of 3 nucleotides that translates for a specific amino acid.
What is the difference between mRNA and tRNA?
mRNA is translated into protein with the help of transfer RNA which is tRNA.
What is RNA processing in eukaryotes? Why is this good or bad?
What is a mutation and what are the impacts of a mutation?
M=changes in genetic material. Can lead to the production of an abnormal protein.
Why do different cell types look different?
Envrionmental conditions.
What can bacteria do with naked DNA that eukaryotes can't? Is this good or bad?
What is cancer?
Four mutations that occur in either cells or genes.
Compare and contrast a healthy cell and a cancer cell.
Cancer cells have distinctive changes in structure due to the loss of genetic regulation.
What are the main causes of cancer?
UV, Smoke, Alcohol, Viruses
What is a transgenic organism?
What is biotechnology? Is it good or bad?
Biotechnology is a break through with technology entering the science field specifically with DNA.
What is primary research literature? How is it different from other scientific reports?
It is an article written by a professional and critiqued by fellow scientists.
What is a DNA fingerprint and how is it created?
DNA fingerprint is a strand of DNA that can correctly identify an individual. It is created by extracting DNA then mixing it with a restriction enzyme and subjected to electrophoresis.
Who is Darwin and what did he describe?
Charles Darwin is known as the father of evolution. He described descent with modifications or evolution and natural selection.
Compare and Contrast artificial and natural selection.
A.S.=occurs when humans selecting and breeding individuals with desired traits. Natural selection occurs in nature.
What is genetic diversity/variation and why is it important?
It is important to prevent diseases and unwanted mutations. Also natural selection can only occur on variations.
What are ways that populations evolve?
Populations evolve both with discrete characters (either -or widow peak) or quantitative characters (continuum skin color)
What is an adaptation?
Species change in response the their enviornment.
What is susbtainability?
The survival of an organism while maintaining the quality of its environment.
What is biosphere II, and what is its lesson?
Experiment in AZ. in 1991. We still do not know all the important factors about what are essential elements to sustain life.
What is biodiversity? and why is it important?
A diversity of Animals and Plants that are needed to continue the successful habitation on the planet. It is essential for human survival.
why is the size of the human population a concern?
The number of people on the planet with greatly reduce the amount of resources the planet has.
what are the two big picture things we can do to improve the sustainability of humans in their environment?
Educate others, and Technological advances.
What are some technologies that are improving sustainability?
Improved Agricultural technologies (improved irrigation, genetically modified plants), and Renewable Energy (Wind, Water etc.)
What is bioethics and why is it important?