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10 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Gender Theorist ; Robin Lakoff's study of women, 1975 "Language and Women's place"

-Interrupt less (speak less)

- Hypercorrect Grammar

- Fillers and hedging (So, Umm) = lack of authority and uncertainty

- No expletives (F*ck off)

- Tag questions are sign of weakness (I'm right aren't I?)

- Reasoning = men in position of dominance

Gender Theorist ; Dale Spender, 1970s "Manmade Language"

- Dominance model

- Male sentences using hypercorrect & formal grammar

- Thinks language itself was gender marked and specific

- Generic pronouns "He" assumes male reader

- Address terms = "Mr" is honourific compared to "Miss" or "Mrs"

Gender Theorist ; O'Barr Atkins 1980

- Men from lower classes used many featues similar to females

- Concluded that these features were used by the disempowered and not because they are women

Gender Theorist ; Pamela Fishman, 1985, "Interaction; the work women do"

- Women us tag questions and other features to help men out

Gender theorist ; Janet Holmes, 1992

- Lakoff's "findings were grossly misleading"

- Hedges and fillers = multifunctional

- Tag questions are supportive and polite

Gender Theorist ; Jane Pilkington 1990s

- Women = In same Sex conversations use collab features and support each other

- Women = anecdotal to support each other

- Tag questions = facilitate

- Difference model

- Men are less complementary to each other and more competitive

Gender Theorist ; Jennifer Coates, 1990s, "Real men Talk"

- Men 'Hold the floor' (talking for long periods of time each)

- Men talk about drinking and cars

- Women overlap but men don't

- Verbal Duelling

- Masculine = boasting and swearing

- Women talk about house, scandal, children etc

Gender Theorist ; Deborah Tannen, "You just don't understand"

- Thinks it is like men and women speak different languages

- "Natural and inescapable difference"

- Men and women have totally different ways of speaking and that is why the don't understand each other

- Deborah Cameron has counter argument

Gender Theorist ; Penelope Eckert

- Gender is socially constructed and can be learnt

- There has been a misleading merging of gender to mean biological sex

Gender Theorist ; Deborah Cameron

- Women brought up to use language a certain way

- Linguistic research that focuses on gender is limited, both genders are intrinsically varied

- No "Natural" difference in men and women, women's language is due to social isolation

- Said Tannen's theory was nonsense and just the way men and women socialise