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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Berko and Brown (1960)
comprehension and reproduction: 'fis'
Cruttenden (1974)
phonological development: football score
W.O.Grady et al., Contemporary Linguistics (1996)
Words used by children in first 18 months:
Entities, properties, actions, personal-social.
Aichison (1987)
Child's acquisition of vocabulary stages:
1. Labelling
2. Packaging
3. Network building
Bloom (1973)
Ambiguity of two-word sentences: 'mummy sock'
Brown (1973)
7 stages of acquisition of inflections for children aged 20-36months. 1. -ing 2. plural -s 3. possessive -'s 4. 'the' 'a' 6.third person singular -s 7. auxiliary 'be'
Cruttenden (1979)
3 stages of acquisition of inflections:
1. words learnt on individual basis
2. learn principles governing inflections (under/overextension occurs)
3. correct inflections used, including irregulars.
Berko (1958)
Understanding of grammatical rules: 'Wugs'
Halliday (1975)
7 functions of children's language:
1. instrumental 2.regulatory 3.interactional 4.personal 5.heuristic 6.imaginative 7.representational
Bancroft (1996)
showed that the game of 'peek-a-boo' has parallels with typical conversation.
Youssef (1991)
3year9month child adjusting amount of standard English used with mother/Trinidadian helper/friends of same age
Skinner (1957)
Imitation and reinforcement theory
Chomsky (1965)
Children have innate ability to extract underlying rules from the language heard around them using LAD
Bard and Sachs (1977)
Studied a child called Jim, who was the son of deaf parents.
Developed the cognition theory:
related object permanence (developed 12-18months) with the acquisition of new vocabulary and comparatives.
Coupland (1991)
Studied the effects of using child-directed speech towards the elderly.
David Crystal (1995)
Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the English Language
Identified 5 characteristics of Standard English.
Michael Halliday
Three main influences on the variety of language used:
Field, manner, mode.
Trudgill (1983)
Studied how the pronunciation of -ing changes in relaxed conversations and reading aloud.
Crystal and David (1969)
Measured the amount of contractions used in a phone conversation between friends (59.9%), a phone conversation between strangers (48.8%), interviews (25.4%), broadcasts (21.5%).
Howard Giles
Accommodation Theory
Coupland (1984)
Studied a woman at a Cardiff travel agency who adjusted her pronunciation according the the social background of her clients.
H.P.Grice (1975)
The Cooperative principle
(participants have common goals and agreed ways of achieving goals.
Maxims of quality, relevance, manner and quantity.
Irvine Goffman (1955)
Face theory
=the way we present ourselves
-face-threatening acts
-face needs
Brown and Levinson (1987)
Positive and Negative politeness theory
Robin Lakoff (1973)
The Politeness Principal:
Three maxims speakers usually observe:
-Don't impose
-Give options
-Make your receiver feel good
Fishman (1990)
In mixed-sex conversations, the average time for which a man will speak is approximately double the time for which a woman will speak.
Zimmerman and West (1975)
Analysed the amount of interruptions in informal student conversations in public places.
Same-sex: evenly distributed
mixed-sex: 96%male
Lakoff (1975)
Because of their social position, woman are more tentative than men in their speech.
(use of indirect+tag questions)
Labov (1966)
Studied the use of the postvocalic r (considered socially prestigious).
Discovered that in casual speech, upper and middle class speakers used the postvocalic r more, but in more formal situations, the reverse was the case.
Petyt (1980)
Examined the dropping of 'h' sound at the end of words in Bradford. Discovered there was a close relationship between 'h' dropping and social class.
Lesley Milroy (1980)
Studied social networks in Belfast:
Members of a speech community are connected to each other in social networks which may be relatively 'closed' or 'open'. A person whose personal contacts all know each other belong to a closed network. An individual whose contacts tend not to know each other belong to an open network.In the case of language, this means that a closely-knit group will have the capacity to enforce linguistic norms.