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18 Cards in this Set

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Components of the GI system

Mouth,Esophagus,Stomach,Small Intestines,Large Intestines,Liver,Gallbladder,Pancreas,Appendix

Functions of the GI system

Break down of food into nutrients,Absorption of nutrients into the body,Movement of food through the body,Removal of waste products

Mouth

Solid food is broken down into smaller pieces through mechanical and chemical digestion. Mechanical digestion is done by the teeth in the mouth physically breaking up food. Chemical digestion is accomplished by saliva which contains enzymes which help break down carbohydrates.

Esophagus

The muscular contractions of the esophagus carry the food, liquid and saliva from the mouth to the stomach. The esophagus is pinched together at both the upper and lower ends by muscles called sphincters. When a person swallows, the sphincters relax, allowing food and drink to pass into the stomach.

Stomach

Functions as storage and as a mixing organ for ingested food and fluids. When food enters the stomach, gastric juices are secreted by the wall of the stomach to break down the food into a substance called chyme. A small amount of digestion and absorption occurs in the stomach.

Small Intestines

Produces secretions that lubricate and protect the intestinal wall, helping mix and move the chyme as absorption of fluid and nutrients occurs. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of food occurs.

Large Intestines

Absorbs water and vitamins from the chyme leaving behind feces which eventually will be eliminated by the body by the rectum and anus.

Liver

Located just below the diaphragm, functions in the digestive system by producing bile. Bile contains digestive enzymes that help break down fats. It also plays a role in maintaining a normal blood glucose level.

Gallbladder

A hollow organ which stores bile produced by the liver. This allows the bile to become more concentrated and potent, helping break down food containing fat.

Pancreas

An endocrine and exocrine gland producing several important hormones and pancreatic juices. Pancreatic juice contains digestive enzymes and other substances that neutralize the hydrochloric acid in the digestive juices entering the small intestines.

Appendix

Located near the junction of the small and large intestine and it is said to serve no real purpose. An inflamed appendix is a common cause of abdominal pain and infection.

Components of the GU system

Kidneys,Ureters,Bladder,Urethra

Functions of the GU system

Removing waste products from blood,Producing urine from the waste products,Storing urine until it is eliminated,Eliminating urine from the body

Kidneys

Located behind the abdominal cavity of the right and left side of the body, these organs take blood from the renal arteries and remove water and wastes from the blood, making urine.The kidneys also help regulate blood pressure, balance chemicals in the body, and produce red blood cells.

Ureters

Muscular tubes which carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

Bladder

Located in the pelvis, the bladder is a hollow organ which collects urine from the kidneys and stores it until the bladder is ready to empty.

Urethra

The urethra excretes the urine collected in the bladder to the outside of the body. In females the urethra surfaces above the vaginal opening and in males it travels through the penis.

Micturition

also known as "urination" or "voiding," is the act of emptying the bladder