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34 Cards in this Set

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Whatis the primary method for oxygen transport in the body

98% attached to hemoglobin


2-3% dissolved in rbcs

do men or women have more hb? (g Hb/100ml blood)

men: 14-18g hb/100ml blood


women:12-16g

what can cause a left/right shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissiciation curve

R: more O2 is unloaded from Hb at tissue level, (during exercise more O2 to tissues)


L: less O2 is unloaded at the tissue level

what does the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve show?

amount of Hb saturated, as PO2 dec. so does Hb saturation

How is CO2 transported in the blood? 3 ways, primary way?

60-70% bicarbonate ions


20-30% carbaminohemoglboin


10% dissolved in plasma

what are some of the ways respiration is regulated?

Peripheral chemoreceptors (PO2, PCO2, H)


Changing core body temp


Neural mechanisms


Voluntary control

VE ventilation =

TV * Bf




amount of air moved per minute

at high intensity exercises what continues the upward drive in ventilation

at low intensities TV increases, but at high ones Bf does too

3 ways we know that VT does not equal LT

mcardles disease: born w/ muscle disease have no LT, but have VT


aerobic training can move LT but VT doesnt change much


in a glycogen depleted state you hit LT quick but VT is the same

adaptations to ventilation, breathing frequency, tidal volume

only changes at submax exercise


VE stays the same, but tv incs and bf dec

tests we can use to measure lung function?

forced vital capacity


max voluntary ventilation


FEV1

superior vena cava

Transports deoxygenated blood into theright atrium from the body

pulmonary trunk

Transportsblood from the right ventricle to the lungs

aorta

transports blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body

coronary arteries

supply blood to the heart

electrical conduction pathway


6 steps

sa node -> atria -> av node ->av bundle -> bundle branches -> bundle of his

extrinsic control: PNS effect on the heart

vagal tone: max= 20-30 bpm in super trained runner

SNS effect on heart

inc rate of impulse generation and conduction speed, opposite of PNS, incs. hr

Q=

SV * HR

EF=

SV/EDV

SV=

volume pumped per contraction

artery vs vein

artery pumps oxygenated blood away from the heart, vein sends deoxygenated blood to the heart

SBP vs DBP

systolic is the highest pressure of the heart, during a contraction


diastolic is the lowest pressure during relaxation

MAP


MAP=??

average pressure exerted by the arterioles


2/3 DBP + 1/3 SBP

BP is maintained and controlled by the autonomic nervous system


3 different receptors

baroreceptors


chemoreceptors


mechanoreceptors

BLOOD FLOW %'s at rest and during exercise

20% skin, 80% muscles intense exercise




20% stomach/GI, 20% kidneys, 15% brain 20% muscles at rest

3 factors that aid in venous blood return

valves in the veins, blood only flows one way


muscle pump, respiratory pump

blood composition %

55% plasma (90% h20)


45% formed elements (99% rbc)

hematocrit

ratio of formed elements to total blood volume


ex. 45/100

frank starling mechanism

ventricles fill with more blood so they stretch further and thus contract with more force

calculate rate pressure product

HR*SBP/1000

metabolic adaptations with aerobic training


lactate threshold


RER

inc. in lactate clearance and reduced reliance on glycolytic systems


RER inc. utilization of FFA

BMI=?

weight (kg)/ height (m) ^2




>18.5 underweight


18.5-25 normal


>25->30 overweight


>30 obese

glucose transporter most effected by physical activity/exercise?

glut IV