Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/25

Click to flip

25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Wildlife Management

The application of ecological knowledge to populations of vertebrate animals and their plant and animal associates in a manner that strikes a balance between the needs of these populations and the needs of people



Dietary analysis - carnivores -pre-ingestion

Observations difficult


Limited to large carnivores


Binoculars, spotting scope, night vision scopes

Dietary analysis - herbivores -pre-ingestion

Observations of wild ungulates


count browsed or grazed plants


Tame ungulates


Bite studies - bites/min, % composition of diet, volume or biomass



Browse Surveys

Estimate of the forage removed by grazing and browsing Before and after Grazed - ungrazed comparison -


Use exclosures, compare at end of growing season, time consuming and imprecise


grazed - plant method - Count number of grazed plants or browsed stems

Stomach or rumen contents - carnivores

contents can be referenced to sex, age, size


entire digestive tracts or contents may be collected


freezing or field preservation in 10% formalin


wash carefully, watch for pathogens


ID hair, feather, bones.

Stomach or rumen contents - herbivores

wash contents over sieve sets


IDed macroscopically or microhistologically


reference collections of plant epidermal cells


rumen fluids & rumen fauna can affect the analysis

Fistula

Permanent device permanently placed in an animals digestive tract


work well only with tame animals


esophageal or rumen

Casts or crop contents

Owls and raptors - anonymous information


drying/freezing to kill microbial action


separate bones, hair, feathers




Crops


hunter killed; collected


wash over sieve and dry


separate seeds and plants

Scats, pellets, and droppings

anonymous information


size, composition, conformation may provide ID


analysis of bile acids


does not require killing of animal


Only the most durable parts are present


underestimates easily digestible material

Available foods

censusing, sampling prey populations


vegetative analysis - % composition, biomass


Comparing availability of food % composition or volume in diet

opportunistic foragers -

% comp in diet = % comp in habitat

selective foragers -

% comp in diet does not equal % comp in habitat

Dietary selection

availability estimated, field studies

forage ratio index

FR = r/nr = use (in diet)


n = availability


>1.0 = positive selection,


1.0 = use in proportion

Rank preference index

t = r - s


t = rank difference,


r = rank of usage of resource type,


s = rank of availability of resource type

Descriptive Indices = how many in the population are using the food?

desirability coefficient = % vol food item in diet * % occurrence in stomachs / % food item in plant population




Food index = (% utilization * (100-%availability)) / 100

Forage analysis - parameters of interest

crude protein


energy


elements


nutrition

crude protein

most commonly used, important in growth and structure


measure of nitrogen


Kjedahl procedure


crude protein may not be quality protein

Energy

daily fuel - measured by bomb calorimetry


Crude fat


crude fiber (ADF)

Elements

Ca : P ratio - both needed for bone growth. 1:1

Analysis of available forage(*4)

1. potentials for the diet


2. attempt to gather a representative diet from grasses, forbs, and shrubs


3. analyse for crude protein, dry matter, energy, etc.


4. Difficult to reconstruct the dietary selection

Carcass indices

whole body fat (small mammals)


skeletal measurements and weights


femur length : hind foot length


Marrow fat - last fat reserves to be metabolized


from femur or mandibular cavitymeasure or visual (pink or runny)


Kidney Fat Index (KFI) - abdominal fat reservesratio of perirenal fat to weight of the kidney


fluctuates with season

Use at least three of these indicators to assess diet quality

BUN(Blood urea nitrogen)


fecal DAPA (protein and E status )


KFI(ratio of perirenal fat to weight of the kidney)


fecal crude protein()


rumenal DE()

Reproductive performance

-Reproductive capacity and success are indicators of health of the population




-Females are the reproductive unit


-Ovarian activity in birds - laparotomy,clutch size


- Mammals - estrus, ovulation & corpora lutea, placental scars, lactation



Survivorship =

production vs. recruitment