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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Wildlife Management

The application of ecological knowledge to populations of vertebrate animals and their plant and animal associates in a manner that strikes a balance between the needs of these populations and the needs of people

Dietary analysis - carnivores -pre-ingestion

Observations difficult

Limited to large carnivores

Binoculars, spotting scope, night vision scopes

Dietary analysis - herbivores -pre-ingestion

Observations of wild ungulates

count browsed or grazed plants

Tame ungulates

Bite studies - bites/min, % composition of diet, volume or biomass

Browse Surveys

Estimate of the forage removed by grazing and browsing Before and after Grazed - ungrazed comparison -

Use exclosures, compare at end of growing season, time consuming and imprecise

grazed - plant method - Count number of grazed plants or browsed stems

Stomach or rumen contents - carnivores

contents can be referenced to sex, age, size

entire digestive tracts or contents may be collected

freezing or field preservation in 10% formalin

wash carefully, watch for pathogens

ID hair, feather, bones.

Stomach or rumen contents - herbivores

wash contents over sieve sets

IDed macroscopically or microhistologically

reference collections of plant epidermal cells

rumen fluids & rumen fauna can affect the analysis


Permanent device permanently placed in an animals digestive tract

work well only with tame animals

esophageal or rumen

Casts or crop contents

Owls and raptors - anonymous information

drying/freezing to kill microbial action

separate bones, hair, feathers


hunter killed; collected

wash over sieve and dry

separate seeds and plants

Scats, pellets, and droppings

anonymous information

size, composition, conformation may provide ID

analysis of bile acids

does not require killing of animal

Only the most durable parts are present

underestimates easily digestible material

Available foods

censusing, sampling prey populations

vegetative analysis - % composition, biomass

Comparing availability of food % composition or volume in diet

opportunistic foragers -

% comp in diet = % comp in habitat

selective foragers -

% comp in diet does not equal % comp in habitat

Dietary selection

availability estimated, field studies

forage ratio index

FR = r/nr = use (in diet)

n = availability

>1.0 = positive selection,

1.0 = use in proportion

Rank preference index

t = r - s

t = rank difference,

r = rank of usage of resource type,

s = rank of availability of resource type

Descriptive Indices = how many in the population are using the food?

desirability coefficient = % vol food item in diet * % occurrence in stomachs / % food item in plant population

Food index = (% utilization * (100-%availability)) / 100

Forage analysis - parameters of interest

crude protein




crude protein

most commonly used, important in growth and structure

measure of nitrogen

Kjedahl procedure

crude protein may not be quality protein


daily fuel - measured by bomb calorimetry

Crude fat

crude fiber (ADF)


Ca : P ratio - both needed for bone growth. 1:1

Analysis of available forage(*4)

1. potentials for the diet

2. attempt to gather a representative diet from grasses, forbs, and shrubs

3. analyse for crude protein, dry matter, energy, etc.

4. Difficult to reconstruct the dietary selection

Carcass indices

whole body fat (small mammals)

skeletal measurements and weights

femur length : hind foot length

Marrow fat - last fat reserves to be metabolized

from femur or mandibular cavitymeasure or visual (pink or runny)

Kidney Fat Index (KFI) - abdominal fat reservesratio of perirenal fat to weight of the kidney

fluctuates with season

Use at least three of these indicators to assess diet quality

BUN(Blood urea nitrogen)

fecal DAPA (protein and E status )

KFI(ratio of perirenal fat to weight of the kidney)

fecal crude protein()

rumenal DE()

Reproductive performance

-Reproductive capacity and success are indicators of health of the population

-Females are the reproductive unit

-Ovarian activity in birds - laparotomy,clutch size

- Mammals - estrus, ovulation & corpora lutea, placental scars, lactation

Survivorship =

production vs. recruitment