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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Major shifts in source of food historically were ____________ and _____________.

Hunting and gathering, agriculture

Major shift in source of food currently is that it is _____________ in the ______________.

manufactured, food industry

Ultimate expression of _____________________ relationships and human ability to ______________________ in order to survive are historically how humans conceptualized food.

human/nature, manipulate nature.

________________________________ currently conceptualizes how we see food.

Industrial Manufacturing Processes

Industrial manufacturing processes currently conceptualized how we see food because we see it as _______ vs. _________, ________, ________ and _________ vs. __________.

- Make vs Grow, harvest, eat


- Nourish vs. product for profit

_________________ is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body

Food



______________ also means substance ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells to provide energy, maintain life or stimulate growth.

Food

The science, art and business directed at the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance and profit is called ________________.

Agriculture

_______________ is the activity or business of growing crops and raising livestock that is a part of agriculture.

Farming

Different places practicing different types of agriculture reflects ____________, ______________, and _____________.

Culture, location differences, available technology.

____________ and _____________ are the types of agriculture.

Subsistence and Commercial

___________________ once occurred in hunting gathering communities and was limited by its community's limits.

Subsistence Agriculute

___________________ is located in the periphery and is diminishing on a global scale because of globalization.

Subsistence Agriculture

Examples of subsistence agriculture include ______________ and ______________

Shifting cultivation (slash and burn) and Pastrolism

___________________ occurred in the tropics and it maintained soil fertility by rotating fields that are cultivated by a method of slash and burn which rotated every five years roughly.

Shifting Cultivation (slash and burn)

____________ and __________ were required in shifting agriculture (slash and burn)

Communal lands and Low Population Density

Low population density was needed in shifting cultivation agriculture because it _____________ and it could not _________________.

- Needed a lot of land


- Could not produce enough food

____________________ was done by breeding and herding animals to satisfy human needs for food, shelter, and clothing.

Pastrolism

Pastrolism was done in a _________________ and ______________ method.

Sedentary and Nomadic

_____________________ was a transhumance movement of herds according to seasonal rhythms.

Nomadic Pastrolism

_____________, _____________, and _____________ are locations were pastrolism is performed.

Africa, Middle East, Central Asia

______________ and ______________ were the characteristics of pastrolism



Space and Public/Private property

Domestication of crops and animals or more specifically seed agriculture and animals used for food and work occurred in the _____________________.

1st Revolution of Agriculture (10,000-2,000 BC)

Agriculture replaced home growing and led to settlements turning into civilizations examples include the Tigris/Euphrates, and the Nile. Diffused from this hearth is occurred in the ___________________.

1st Revolution of Agriculture (10,000-2,000 BC)

Improved technology provided a sense of control and commercial markets formed in the _______________________.

2nd Revolution of Agriculture (Different Places and Times)

Mechanization, Chemical/Synthetic inputs leading to problems of over fertilization and acidic soil, and food manufacturing happened in the ________________________.

3rd Revolution of Agriculture (19th-20th Century)

__________________ is what we see from the 3rd revolution of agriculture which includes Commercial and Industrial agriculture.

Modern Agriculture

In ____________________, food manufacturing (made vs. harvest) began and the role of a farm drastically changed.

Intensified Agriculture

_______________________ added value and shifted from a primary sector product to secondary sector product.

Food Manufacturing (Made vs. Harvest)

Role of the farm drastically changed because the farm shifted from __________________ to a farm as _____________________.

Center of agriculture, one part of complex process.

Role of the farm drastically changed because stages of agriculture integrated making a _______________ processes starting with _____________, _____________, _____________, ___________, ____________, and ______________.

multi-leveled, production, storage, processing, distribution, marketing, and retailing

Issues of Multi Leveled


• At what stage(s) of this process does the farm play a role?


• Who or what dictates production?

- Production


- Market

________________ was the genetic engineering of plants and animals in an attempt to increase agricultural productivity.

Bio revolution

___________________ is the techniques that uses living organisms to improve, make or modify plants and animals or to develop microorganisms for specific uses and examples include super plants or plant cloning.

Bio Technology

Benefits of biotechnology include the ability to control ____________, ____________, and _____________.

Costs, Production, Environmental Impacts

The potential costs of biotechnology may include the impact on ___________ and ______________ as well as the impact on _________________, especially geographically and accessibility to it.

health and environment, Peripheral Countries

Bioengineering plants to produce pharmaceuticals is called ________________.

biopharming

The distribution of industrial agriculture occurs in _________ and __________ countries.

core and periphery

Distribution of industrial agriculture in periphery countries historically was exported from the core for example the __________________, were reasons why techniques went to periphery.

Green Revolution

Industrial agriculture in periphery countries currently are shifting ________________ which means there is no longer interest and it is unable to be helped.

economies

Distribution of Industrial Agriculture in periphery countries resulted in ______________ and ______________.

Nontraditional agricultural exports (NTAE) and Contact farming.

_______________________ include crops that are competitive in global market, crops that bring higher profit, replace traditional crops/exports, and it has more requirements, standards.

Nontraditional agricultural exports (NTAE)



________________ is an agreement between farmers and processing/marketing firms for production, supply, and purchase of agriculture goos

Contact Farming

With _____________ of agriculture, modern agriculture is both an ____________ sector activity and a ______________ distributed activity.

Globalization, economic, geographically

Modern agriculture is increasingly dependent on economic policies and regulatory practices because of _______________.

Globalization

___________ and _________ of agriculture is global in its organization because of _____________________ of agriculture.

Scope, Scale, Globalization

A complication factor of globalization of agriculture is that food is both a ____________ and a ____________ but is subject to _______________ and __________________.

necessity and commodity, national policies and international trade policies.

Global agricultural market regulated by super-national organizations like World Trade Organization is an issue with ___________________

Globalization of Agriculture.

__________________ were the reaction to impersonal products which made better tasting products with more nutrition as well as having an a positive impact on local areas by providing workers jobs.

Alternative Food Movements

Alternative food movements vision of growth is based on balancing ______________, ______________, _______________.

economic development, environmental impact, social equity

Examples of alternative food movements include ______________, _______________, _______________, and ______________.

Organic Farming, Local Food Movements, Urban Agriculture, and Slow Food Movements.

_______________ is farming without the use of commercial fertilizers, synthetic pesticides and growth hormones.

Organic farming

_________________________ involve consuming food that is produced within 100 miles (Locavores) and are often characterized by co-ops.

Local Food Movements

__________________ involves growing food in urban areas and is historically in blighted areas (neglected areas)

Urban Agriculture

______________________ involves resisting fast food and appreciating culture. Also, involves appreciation for meal as an event.

Slow Food Movement

__________________ are areas where healthy, affordable food is difficult to obtain and is located in ___________________.

Food Desserts, Low socio-economic areas



________________ are the result of physical and economic barriers to accessing healthy food.

Food Desserts