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### 35 Cards in this Set

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 What is the formula for density? Rho=mass/volume What is the units for density? Kilograms per cubic metre. What is the densest material on earth? Osmium. What is the specific gravity of a material? The ratio of its density to the density of water. What two environmental factors does density depends upon? Temperature and Pressure. What is the formula for pressure in a fluid? Pressure = Force/Area What is the formula for pressure in a fluid of uniform density? pressure = pressure originally + rho*g*height What is true about the pressure at any two points at the same level in a fluid? It is the same. The shape does not matter. What happens to the pressure at the bottom if you increase the pressure on the top surface of a container? It will increase by the same amount. What is Pascal's Law? Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every portion of the fluid and the walls of the containing vessel. What is the formula for F2? F2 = (A2/A1)*F1 What is true about a car tire if the pressure inside it is the same as atmospheric pressure? The tire is flat. What is the excess pressure above atmospheric pressure called? Gauge pressure. What is the total pressure called? Absolute pressure. What is Archimedes's Principle? When a body is completely or partially immersed in a fluid, the fluid exerts an upward force on the body equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. How does surface tension occur? The water molecules on the surface exert attractive forces on one another. What is true about the surface area of a membrane under tension? It tends to minimise its surface area. What is the term for internal friction in a fluid? Viscosity. What is the path of an individual particle in a moving fluid called? A flow line. If the overall flow pattern does not change with time, what is the flow called? Steady flow. What is a streamline? A streamline is a curve whose tangent at any point is in the direction of the fluid velocity at that point. What is laminar flow? When adjacent layers of fluid slide smoothly past each other and the flow is steady. What is turbulent flow? At high flow rates when the flow becomes irregular and chaotic. There is no steady-state pattern; the flow pattern changes continuously. What quantitative relationship comes from the fact that the mass of a moving fluid doesn't change as it flows. The continuity equation. What is the continuity equation? A1v1=A2v2. What is the volume flow rate equation? dV/dt=Av What is the mass flow rate? The mass flow per unit time through a cross section What does the volume flow rate equation show? The flow rate has the same value at all points along any flow tube. When an in-compressible fluid flows along a flow tube with varying cross-section, what must change? It's speed which means an element of the fluid must have an acceleration. What would happen if the pressure where the same at all points in a flow tube with varying cross sectional area? The net force on every element would be zero. What is Bernoulli's equation? p1+rho*g*y1+0.5*rho*(v1)^2 = p2+rho*g*y2+0.5*rho*(v2)^2 What does Bernoulli's equation show? The work done on a unit volume of a fluid by the surrounding fluid is equal to the sum of the changes in kinetic and potential energies per unit volume that will occur during the flow. When is Bernoulli's equation valid? When the fluid is incompressible, steady flowing and had no internal friction (viscosity). What is the boundary layer of a viscous fluid? The layer in which the fluid the nearly at rest with respect to the surface. This makes a viscous fluid cling to surfaces making it harder to get off. How do you ensure the flow of a viscous liquid? Apply a greater pressure at the back of the flow than at the front.