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134 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Actinic (solar) keratosis

Actinic (solar) keratosis

Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury

Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury

Cushing ulcer (intracranial pressure stimulates vagal gastric secretion)

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns

Curling ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)

Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon

Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon

Skip lesions (Crohn disease)

Aneurysm, dissecting

Aneurysm, dissecting

Hypertension

Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta

Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta

Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis

Aortic aneurysm, arch

Aortic aneurysm, arch or ascending

3° syphilis (syphilitic aortitis), vasa vasorum destruction

Aortic aneurysm, thoracic

Marfan syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies

Wernicke encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)

Wernicke encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)

Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)

Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)

Sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin S)

Sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin S)

Bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer

H. pylori

Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)

Group B streptococcus/E.coli (newborns), S. pneumoniae/ Neisseria meningitidis (kids)

Benign melanocytic nevus

Benign melanocytic nevus

Spitz nevus (most common in 1st two decades)

Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency

Bernard-Soulier syndrome (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor)

Brain tumor (adults)

Supratentorial: metastasis > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma

Brain tumor (kids)

Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or supratentorial: craniopharyngioma

Breast cancer

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma

Breast mass

Fibrocystic change, carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)

Breast tumor (benign)

Fibroadenoma

Cardiac 1° tumor (kids)

Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis

Cardiac manifestation of lupus

Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)

Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)

Cardiac tumor (adults)

Metastasis, 1° myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; “ball and valve”)

Cerebellar tonsillar herniation

Cerebellar tonsillar herniation

Chiari II malformation

Chronic arrhythmia

Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)

Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina

DES exposure in utero

Compression fracture

Compression fracture

Osteoporosis (type I: postmenopausal woman; type II: elderly man or woman)

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension

21-hydroxylase deficiency

Congenital cardiac anomaly

VSD (Ventricular Septal Defect)

Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)

Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)

Constrictive pericarditis

TB (developing world); SLE (developed world)

Coronary artery involved in thrombosis

LAD > RCA > LCA

Cretinism

Cretinism

Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism

Cushing syndrome

Cushing syndrome

Iatrogenic Cushing (from corticosteroid therapy)



Adrenocortical adenoma (secretes excess cortisol)



ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma



Paraneoplastic Cushing (due to ACTH secretion by tumors)

Cyanosis (early; less common)

Cyanosis (early; less common)

Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus

Cyanosis (late; more common)

Cyanosis (late; more common)

VSD, ASD, PDA

Death in CML

Death in CML

Blast crisis

Death in SLE

Death in SLE

Lupus nephropathy

Dementia

Alzheimer disease, multiple infarcts

Demyelinating disease in young women

Demyelinating disease in young women

Multiple sclerosis

DIC

Severe sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burns, trauma, major surgery

Dietary deficit

Iron

Diverticulum in pharynx

Diverticulum in pharynx

Zenker diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)

Zenker diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)

Ejection click

Aortic/pulmonic stenosis

Esophageal cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (U.S.)

Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)

S. aureus, B. cereus

Glomerulonephritis (adults)

Glomerulonephritis (adults)

Berger disease (IgA nephropathy)

Gynecologic malignancy

Endometrial carcinoma (most common in U.S.); cervical carcinoma (most common worldwide)

Heart murmur, congenital

Mitral valve prolapse

Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis

Mitral > aortic (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse)

Helminth infection (U.S.)

Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides

Hematoma—epidural

Hematoma—epidural

Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)

Hematoma—subdural

Hematoma—subdural

Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)

Hemochromatosis

Hemochromatosis

Multiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, “bronze diabetes,” andrisk of hepatocellular carcinoma)

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Cirrhotic liver (associated with hepatitis B and C and with alcoholism)

Hereditary bleeding disorder

von Willebrand disease

Hereditary harmless jaundice

Gilbert syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

HLA-B27

Ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, ulcerative colitis, psoriatic arthritis

HLA-DR3 or -DR4

Diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE

Holosystolic murmur

VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation

Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis

Virchow triad (results in venous thrombosis)

Hypertension, 2°

Renal disease

Hypoparathyroidism

Accidental excision during thyroidectomy

Hypopituitarism

Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)

Infection 2° to blood transfusion

Hepatitis C

Infections in chronic granulomatous disease

Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus (catalase )

Intellectual disability

Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome

Kidney stones

Calcium = radiopaque



Struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease+ organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus)



Uric acid = radiolucent

Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected left to right becomes right to left)

Eisenmenger syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)

Liver disease

Alcoholic cirrhosis

Lysosomal storage disease

Gaucher disease

Male cancer

Prostatic carcinoma

Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever

Hodgkin lymphoma

Malignancy (kids)

ALL, medulloblastoma (cerebellum)

Metastases to bone

Prostate, breast > lung > thyroid

Metastases to brain

Lung > breast > genitourinary > melanoma > GI

Metastases to liver

Colon >> stomach, pancreas

Mitochondrial inheritance

Disease occurs in both males and females, inherited through females only

Mitral valve stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease

Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Myocarditis

Coxsackie B

Nephrotic syndrome (adults)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

Nephrotic syndrome (kids)

Minimal change disease

Neuron migration failure

Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia)

Nosocomial pneumonia

Klebsiella, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Obstruction of male urinary tract

BPH

Opening snap

Mitral stenosis

Opportunistic infection in AIDS

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia

Osteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis

S. aureus

Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease

Salmonella

Osteomyelitis with IV drug use

Pseudomonas, S. aureus

Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer

Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer

Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)

Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)

Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)

Serous cystadenoma

Ovarian tumor (malignant)

Ovarian tumor (malignant)

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

Pancreatitis (acute)

Gallstones, alcohol

Pancreatitis (chronic)

Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

Patient with ALL /CLL /AML /CML

ALL: child, CLL: adult > 60, AML: adult ∼ 65, CML: adult 30–60

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (bcr-abl)

CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)

Pituitary tumor

Pituitary tumor

Prolactinoma, somatotropic “acidophilic” adenoma

1° amenorrhea

Turner syndrome (45,XO)

1° bone tumor (adults)

Multiple myeloma

1° hyperaldosteronism

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

1° hyperparathyroidism

Adenomas, hyperplasia, carcinoma

1° liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, α1-antitrypsin deficiency)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, α1-antitrypsin deficiency)

Pulmonary hypertension

COPD

Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities

Buerger disease (strongly associated with tobacco)

Buerger disease (strongly associated with tobacco)

Renal tumor

Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and cigarette smoking; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)

Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and cigarette smoking; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)

Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause

Cor pulmonale

Cor pulmonale

S3 (protodiastolic gallop)

ventricular filling (left-to-right shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])

S4 (presystolic gallop)

Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)

2° hyperparathyroidism

Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

Sexually transmitted disease

Chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)

SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion)

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

Site of diverticula

Sigmoid colon

Sigmoid colon

Sites of atherosclerosis

Abdominal aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery

Stomach cancer

Adenocarcinoma

Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels

Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)

t(14;18)

Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)

Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)

t(8;14)

Burkitt lymphoma (c-myc activation)

Burkitt lymphoma (c-myc activation), associated with EBV

t(9;22)

Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl fusion)

Temporal arteritis

Temporal arteritis

Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica

Testicular tumor

Testicular tumor

Seminoma (malignant, radiosensitive)

Thyroid cancer

Papillary carcinoma

Papillary carcinoma

Tumor in women

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

Tumor of infancy

Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)

Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)

Neuroblastoma (malignant)

Neuroblastoma (malignant)

Type of Hodgkin

Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)

Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)

Type of non-Hodgkin

Diffuse large cell

Diffuse large cell

UTI

E. coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)

Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe

HSV-1

Vitamin deficiency (U.S.)

Folate (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3- to 4-month supply; prevents neural tube defects)