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99 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Emerging Adulthood

18-25. This is when young adults begin to explore everything involved in adulthood, and lay the foundation for their adulthood

Baby Boomers

about 78 Million, created new schools and stores, and expanded the nations skilled labor force

Generation x

About 47 Million. More ethically diverse, share appreciation for individuality and diversity etc.

Translate independence and technicological saviness into the .com industry, however face financial challenges with taking care of parents and kids

Generation Y (Millennial Generation)

About 50 Million. Characterized as being wanted and sheltered during childhood, and made to feel worthy. Generation X tends to be more independent where Generation Y tends to be more team players.

Aging Definition

Biological and social changes across one's lifespan

Transition points
Result from social aging. The times when the person gives up a familiar role and assumes a new role (like being a parent)

Age norms

Social Norms that define what is appropriate to be and do at certain ages. (getting married, drivers license).

Social clock

Set of internalized concepts that regulate our progression through the adult years. It is individually set. Wanting to get married at 30 rather than age norm of 28.

Life Events

Independent of age. Do not plan for these events

Physical Performance: Years 18-30

Peak years for speed and agility

Physical Performance: Years 20-30

Peak years for muscle strength and coordination

Completion of Physical Growth in men

Men continue to grow until age 30, and bone mass peaks at age 35

Most common diseases during young adulthood

Infectious diseases like Mono, UTI etc.

Most common death in young adulthood

Auto accidents cause the most injury and fatality in young adulthood. Also drug use

Exercise in 20's

in 20's, only half the population is getting recommended exercise (20 mins a day 3 times a week). Men more likely to achieve this. Men tend to perfer group sports, women tend to prefer walking.

Drinking and Driving Stats

Men 3x more likely than women to D&D
Single people 2x more likely

Binge Drinking

5 (4 for women) consecuitve drinks within a 2 hour time period.

Marijuana Use

Men use weed more than women, single people use it more than married people, young use it more than older.

Mental Health Definition

Subjective sense of well being. Ability to continually change and adapt to life events, and function effectively in social roles.

Depression Stats

Women 2x more likely than men to experience it. Mental health care policies are much worse in other countries.
Married women (especially with children) are more likely to suffer from depression.
Childhood sexual abuse and violence among women contribute to it.
Person with family history of depression is more likely to have it.

Gender differences in Stress

Women tend to admit more stress than men- tend to have a larger social support group when they get stressed. Men more likely to use alcohol to cope with stress. Women tend to experience stress over family events, while men tend to stress oveer work/financial problems.

3 Stages of Stress

1. Alarm reaction: digestion slows, heart rate increases- along with blood flow to provide muscles with blood to fight. Blood sugar also rises
2. Resistance: Body mobilizes to try to overcome stress. Heart and breathing rates return to normal but stress hormones may still be there
3. Exhaustion: Physiological functioning of body is very impaired. Could cause death.

Suicide Stats

Much more common in young adulthood and teens than other ages.
Men are four times more likely to complete suicide than women- Men more likely to use firearm and women drug overdose.

Heterosexual sexual activity in early adulthood

90% of young adults have intercourse by age 22
80% of people in commited relationships reprot being satisfied sexually.
70% of people have only had 1 sexual partner in the last year.

Post-Formal Operations

1. Knowledge is not absolute but relativistic. No such thing as pure fact
2. Accept contradictions and incompatibilities. Accept that as adults differing viewpoints exist.
3. Find an encompassing whole to organize this experience. Ability of adult to look at the larger picture and interperate themselves as part of a larger totality.

Sternberg Thought and Information Processing

Information is percieved and then processed through a number of steps, good problem solvers are good encoders.

Social Relationships (2 types of Bonds)

Expressive Ties: Social links that are formed when we invest and commit ourselves to another person in the long term. Tend to form primary relationships with fam, friends, lovers

Instrumental Ties: Touch and go relationships- little or no knowledge of the other person. Secondary relationships- social interactions that lead to a goal. (grocery store checkout person)

Eriksson Intimacy vs. Isolation

Intimacy: Ability to be close and vulnerable. Stresses love. Indivuals that can't do this enter isolation

Isolation: Inability to be intimate, have fears of the outcomes of intimacy. May resort to things like promiscuity and rejection of others.

Stages in a young Persons life:

Leaving the Family: Usually occurs in early 20's. usually lasts 3-5.

Entering Adult World: Tend to commit to forming relationships and obtain a job. More likely to finish college and become independent before marrying.

Settling Down: women have to balance work and family, and find that they have to either give up a career or a family.

Becoming one's one person: Mid to late 30's, try to get a promotion or gain recognition

Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love

1. Passion: The desire for sexual activity and romance

2. Intimacy: warm tender expressions of concern for wellbeing and desire for reciprication

3. Commitment: Decide they are in love and want to maintain that love

If you have all three it is called consummate love.

*Passion fades while Intimacy and commitment grow.


Couples that live together that are not married. It is a new step between dating and marriage.

More likely to result in marital conflict and divorce.

Lesbian and Gay relationships

Gay and Lesbian relationships very similar to heterosexual.
Tend to divide household labor more fairly. Percieve more social support from friends compared to their family members.

Benefits of Marriage

Higher level of sexual satisfaction. Should be equal decision making, positivity, ability to overcome, communication. Should spend time with eachother. The divorce rate is declining because less people are getting married and women are getting more rights.

The family lifecycle

The sequential changes and reallignments that occur in the structure and relationships of family life between the time of marriage and the death of one or both of the spouses. This life cycle does not apply for divorced families, step families etc.

Transition to parenthood

Decline in quality of life after first child arrive, because there is less time to show affection to eachother. Couples tend to share fewer leisure activities together.
Problems with division of labor (women tend to get more housecare).
Children can help stabalize marriage

Lesbian and gay Parenthood

No evidence of emotional instability. Motherhood NOT SEXUALITY is the dominant identity marker. Lesbian couples tend to divide housecare and childcare more equally. Gay men face more challenges than lesbian women.

Children Raised in Lesbian homes

Children were fine, but were worried to get bullied and teased at school.

Life expectancies for men women and middle age

Men: 75
Women: 80
Midlife: 39

Presbyopia Definition

Lens of the eye hardens. causes headache and tired eyes.

Glaucoma Def.

Pressure buildup behind the eyes, caused by fluid buildup. Can damage optic nerve if not treated.

Cataracts Def.

Clouding of the lens of the eye. Usually requires surgery or special glasses.

Floaters Def.

Annoying floating spots in peoples vision, particles suspended in the gel like fluid of the eyeball.

Macular Degeneration Def.

Thinning of layers of the retina. LEADING CAUSE OF LATE ONSET VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AND LEGAL BLINDNESS. Smoking doubles the risk. You can try to help this by eating diet full of fruits and vegetables.


Hearing loss in high pitched sounds. From damage to cochlea from loud noises.

Taste and smell

At age of 40 tastebuds are replaced much slower. Smell receptors are much weaker after the age of 50

Periodontal disease

Gums recede and as the gums reced this leads to tooth loss. Much harder to eat fruits and veggies so health can decline.

Basal-cell Carcinoma

Scaly patches on skin-can be treated at dermatologist


Usually begins in a mole, if it metastisises it can be deadly.

Body composition in middle adulthood

Muscles begin to atrophy- Men are less likely to notice this atrophy.
Exercise helps prevent muscle loss and strengthen muscles.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Autoimmune inflammitory disease. Ammune system attacks it's own body causing pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of function of joints.


Joint inflammation resulting from cartilidge loss that causes friciton between bones.

Men midlife change

Prostate enlargement: 10% of men over 40

Prostate Cancer: second leading cause of cancer death in men. Tends to increase with each decade of life over the age of 50

Male impotency (ED)

affects 1/2 of men between the age of 40 and 70. Can happen from disease or drug use or diet or exercise. Also mental health.

Sleep in Midlife

Average working person gets 90 mins less than they need.

Hypertension or high blood pressure

one in four of americans adults has it


Women are more likely to have a stroke than men.

Parkinsons disease

Loss of dopamine receptors in brain. Affects men and women equally

Alzheimer's disease.

More likely to develope after 65

Midlife has an increased risk for mortality and suicide

depression and substance abuse are common and often untreated in this age. Often likely to self medicate with alcohol.

Erikson Generativity vs. Stagnation

Contribute to society and give back to others, or to become self absorbed with a sense of boredom

Extra Marital Relationships EMS

Men more likely to engage in these relationships.

Evolutionary Psychologists: Humans are designed to fall but not stay in love.


83% of men remarry
72% of women remarry
Stepfather families are more likely than stepmother families.
Remarriages have a higher divorce rate than first marriages.


Stereotyping/judging people based on their age.


Study of aging


study of behavior and needs of the elderly

Women Live Longer

Women account for 60% of people over 65
and over 70% of population 85 and over.

Absorption of medication in elderly people

liver and kidneys are less effecient and gi tract is too, so absorption of medication is much less effecient


Loss of muscle and skin elasticity that produces skin folds and wrinkles in skin.

Taste buds in old adults

They only have 1/3 of the taste buds a young adult has.


Swallowing disorders that increase with age due to various conditions


in Elderly people

Elderly people are less sensitive to temp change which is why it puts them at a risk for hypothermia

Memory for Names vs. Vocabulary

Name memory declines, however vocabulary can increase over age. Cardiovascular fitness actually helps the brain. Coconut oil may in fact actually help in memory loss and alzheimers

Memory loss- Which stage does it occur?

It can occur in any of the 3 processes.

3 Theories of Memory Failure

Decay Theory: Due to some sort of deterioration in the path to retrieve something.

Interference theory: the retrieval of a memory cue becomes less effective as more or newer items come into play.

Faulty Retrieval of Knowledge: Individuals who are trying to focus on what they need to do and focus on somehow sorting out all of the different info coming at them can lead to overload and therefore even if you did retrieve what you wanted to it may not be the correct memory.

Stroke in Elderly

3rd leading cause of death and a very high cause of cognitive decline.


Small strokes that destroy a small area of brain tissue. Precursur to full blown stroke.

Alzheimers 3 phases

1. Forgetful phase: like where things are placed

2. confusion Phase: cognitive functions worsen, as a result this cannot be overlooked

3. Dimensia Phase: may confuse a spouse or close friend with someone else, develop behavior problems like wandering from home.

Ego Integrity (Erikson)

If elderly people can take satisfaction in having a successful life they will have integrity and feel whole and complete. Serenity and contentment

Despair (Erikson)

If the older adult feels that life has been wasted, bad decisions were made, it's too late to make up for it. Become very bitter and unaccepting and express anger to people around them.

Peck's Psychosocial Tasks of Later Adulthood (3)

1. Ego differentiation vs. work role preoccupation: learn to have an identity without work, have to define themselves differently.

2. Body trancedence vs. body preoccupation: as physical well being and strength dimminish. Must trancscend pain and appearance to have a good quality of life going on.

3. Ego transcendence vs. Ego preoccupation: By transcending ego, people can take step to make sure that there memory benefits people of the future. (what kind of legacy can they leave)

Vaillant's Theory of Emotional Health

Good health depends on...

Self of Resiliance: you can take whatever is thrown at you during a lifetime without being bitter about it. Tend to have mature adaptive mechanisms.

Pragmatism and dependabilty: People who have good emotional health tend to be pragmatic and have a sense of dependability.

Four Major personality types in people 50-80

Integrated: well functioning have a complex life, intact cognitive abilities.

Armored Defended individuals: striving, ambitious, achievement oriented with need to keep control over what they've had in life.

Passive-dependent: require one or two people on who they can lean on and meet emotional needs.

Disintegrated: have gross deterioratin in thought processes with low activity levels and life satisfaction levels.

Remarriage in older people

More than half of older men but only one quarter of women remarry. This is partially because women live longer.
These statistics are misleading because about 4% of elderly adults choose to cohabit instead of remarry.

1/2 of US women age 75 or older are single and live alone. These women tend to be higher with death rates.

Social and Cultural support in elderly people

Friends are more important and satisfying to older people than children, and quality in relationships is more important than the frequency that they see them.

Elder Abuse

acts of commission and omission that cause unnecessary suffering to elderly. It is believed 1 to 2 million americans are abused by someone whom cares for them. It is also found that spousal abuse is more common than abuse by adult children. It often goes unnoticed and unreported


The study of death and dying. It has grown in the last few years.

3 types of Euthenasia

Passive: withholding or removing of treatments that prolongue life

Involuntary: Involves someone in the family deciding to withold or remove medical treatments

Voluntary: patient grants permission to remove treatment.

Hospice Movement

Place that provides comfort and care with the knowledge that the recepients are nearing the end of their lives. Gives dying patients personalized care and independence over their lives.

Life Review

Can give new meaning to present lives by helping them to understand the past more fully by reviewing one generation to the next. This tends to increase their overall life satisfaction. This is a great way to develope integrity rather than dispair (Erikson)

Death Drop

Sudden decline in health just before death. Higher incidences of depression, dimensia.

Near Death Experience

Seeing people try to ressusitate themselves and they pass into a tunnel of spiritual realm.

Stages of Dying (Elizabeth Kubler Ross)

Not all indivuals go through all of these stages.

1. Denial: Denies the seriousness of their own illness. IT"S SELF PROTECTIVE>

2. Anger: May see how unfair it is to die and get angry at the illness.

3. Bargaining: Tend to plead for extra time

4. Depression: A sense of hopelessness and despair about ones loss of life comes upon them

5. Acceptance: The pain is over, someone is void of feelings and are tired and weak.

Phases of Dying

1. Agonal Phase: Suffering during first few moments when the body cannot support life. Gasps and muscles spasms.

2. Clinical Death Phase: Heart, breathing, brain are all stopped. Body can still be rescessitated.

3. Mortality: permanent death; nothing can be done

Defining death

Brain Death: No activity in brain

Persistent Vegetable state: No higher functioning in brain, just basic body funcitoning

Grief defintion

Key mental anguish and sorrow over the death of a loved one. Numb, in shock, and withdraw from social contact.

Bereavment Definition:

State in which a person has been deprived of a relative or friend by death

Mourning Definition

The socially established manner of displaying signs of sorrow over a persons death. (hanging flags, wearing black)

Adjusting to Death of a parent (3 stages of bareavment)

1. Going back to origins: Adult asks himself or herself what their duties and obligatins are to the parent. Very difficult for people who recieved abuse from one of their parents.

2. Reevaluation Phase: During this time the adult has a preoccupation with the deceased. Sadness and intense periods of crying, adults think about the deepest meaning of life.

3. Assuming Leadership: Adults start to remind themselves that they are needed by their own families. Tend to appreciate the richness of life around them.

Phases of Bareavment

1. Shock, numbness, denial, disbelief

2. Pining, Yearning, depression. Lasts about 5-14 days, characterized by distancing from people, preoccupation with images of the deceased (may think someone is your lossed love one). Irritabilty, lack of appetite.

2. Emancipation from the loved one occurs, and the living family member makes an adjustment to the new circumstances. This occurs 6-8 weeks USUALLY after death. Individuals start to mobilize their resources and get connected with people again.

3. Identity reconstruction: new relationships are formed, people assume new roles and may find the benefits that occur with the death. (Greater caring for family and friends, appreciation of existence.)