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90 Cards in this Set

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The Julio-Claudian Dynasty
14 - 68 CE
-Takes place after Augustus’ death
-Julia (daughter) and her children kept from entering politics
-Augustus’ heirs died before getting the chance to enter office defaulting reign to Tiberius
-The next four emperors will be descended from either or both Julius and/or Claudius bloodline (Julius → Augustus; Claudius → Livia)
-Besides Augustus, Livia, and Tiberius pretty much all other members of the family were murdered
SKYPHOS
-a Greek inspired style of cup
-Has an outer relief with and inner liner and two circular handles on each side
-typical Greek shape, showing another example of Romans adopting Greek culture
-examples would be Boscoreale Cup A and Cup B
DOMUS AUREA
-“golden house”
-domus is house; domesticity
OCULUS
-open hole in the ceiling of something to allow light to come in. in Latin means “eyeball”
-Circular opening in a vault or a dome
FOURTH STYLE PAINTING
-last major innovation in painting. Evidence of change runs out thanks to Vesuvius
-very similar to third style
-architecture apparatus with fantasy elements that climb the wall
-but more realistic architectural proportions
-you can see that the piers and entablatures could exist
-they’re no longer tiny, wispy, delicate lines twining into curlicues
-white is usually the background color; no more colored rooms (like Black Room, Red Room, etc)
-white allows for floating figures, sacro-idyllic landscapes, panel paintings to stand out
-most of these don’t even have natural light to hit them; these were downstairs (some in Pompeii and Ostia were upstairs though
GROTTESCHI“GROTESQUE”
-Meaning “things in caves” – a grotto is a cave.
· How did “things in a cave” come to mean “disgusting?”
· the grottos in question are the rooms in Nero’s house
· the images that came out of them – the sketches of Rafael, etc, are called “grotto images”
· when these were discovered, the painters were so thrilled because there were no paintings surviving, previously. They were exciting – not quite what people had expected
· EVERYTHING had to be "grotesque” – cave like. This lasts for nearly 100 years
· and then suddenly it was "gross" and "grotesque" to have grotesque images when grotesque went out of style – vocabulary mutates over time and acquires new meaning
· so the Grotesque is Nero's painting style.
AUGUSTEUM
a public monument that celebrates the Auguste (the ruling family)
SEBASTEION
-if you’re in Greece, then the same thing is called a Sebasteion
-a public monument that celebrates Augustus and his descendents and family
-as time goes on, more emperors will be added in, all under the Auguste, because all emperors have the title of Augustus
The Flavian Dynasty
69 - 96 CE
“Flavian…A new sheriff in town and he looks just like Lyndon Johnson.”
· the “year of the four emperors”
· was the “power vacuum”
· there had previously been an excuse for who the next emperor would be – family relationship
· by the time Nero died, most of the relatives had been murdered – the few stragglers had no interest
· so different men seized power. 3 of them tried and failed (Otho, Galba, and Vitellius) – each ruled for about 2 months before being assassinated
· in the midst of this, the successful general who had been in charge of the armies in Judea, had 2 adult sons, also successful, he made a bid for power. He packaged his career choice as saving the empire from the chaos of the moment. He had the power base to put it back on the right footing, get right with the gods, etc
· he was Vespasian
· Flavius was his family name
· hence the “Flavian” dynasty
· his younger son was in Rome, forged alliances with local senators etc, his other son (Titus) was with him in Judea, went on to finish the Jewish war for Vespasian
· Vespasian rules for 10 years
· first emperor who wasn’t born in the city of Rome – he was from a city north of Rome. This continues to happen

JUDEA

· Augustus’s laws often had a “client king” thing – Herod and his family were client kings. It fails.
· a priesthood established itself, radicalizes, messes with Christian priesthoods. Got messy and bloody, Rome got involved and destroyed everything
· Judea was dissolved and is now part of Syria (?)
• formerly client kingship, dissolved into Syria
JEWISH WARS
-late 60s into 70; intervening to straighten out Judea and that mess
-uprising in Reign of Nero
SPOLIA
spoils you bring back from war; spoils from war; taken as reward (the things you take from war)
ARENA
is Latin for sand – “the sand-pit” – for the absorption of blood
AMPHITHEATER
is 2 Semi-circular seating areas forming a circular building with a stag-like arena area in the center
NEMESIS
- goddess of retribution/balance injustices; Like karma
• Goddess of retribution, of vengeance – Karma, basically. She’ll right the scales when things have gone wrong. Her temples are almost always in theaters or amphitheaters because she presides over games and takes offerings to right the wrongs
GLADIATOR
• professional fighters in stylized games. They did sometimes die and they did sometimes fight to the death on purpose, but not usually. They were popular. Had memorabilia like baseball card things, so it would be bad for them to die every time they fought
• 6 types – Etruscan, Trojan, Samnite, etc
• occasionally, the crowd would get mad and would demand death – so they’d give thumbs up to mean “kill him.”
VENATIONES
-Animals were killed; Were brought from other places; Except for elephants (sentimental toward one another and wouldn’t fight)
-Occurred once a day (less often than the gladiatorial games)
• second kind of major fight, might be 1 a day, not as frequent as gladiator fights.
• were animal fights. Animals were exotic - from near-east, Egypt, sub-saharan African. Everything but elephants because the elephants wept over the first elephant to die and all huddled around the dead elephant. Everything else was fine – slaughter it, but no elephants.
• ostriches, tigers, bears, wolves, etc – that would die in stylized ways
• many people would finance caravans to bring these animals alive
SPANDREL

-triangular area about the curve of the arch; almost always filled with relief or Victoria


• the area between the post and lintel and the arch; are almost always relief sculptures of Victory, usually with a trophy


• always 2 on one side and 2 on the other

ATTIC

-upper level plaque are for inscriptions and sometimes images


• upper level, placard, box on top of a typical Roman arch. It usually holds a large inscription


• on top of the arch, always missing now, are the quadriga – the four horsed chariot of the emperor in triumph

HONOS
honor (masculine word)
• Masculine verb, twins Honor and Virtue guard for safe passage
VIRTUS
manliness/virtue (feminine word)
• although it’s manliness, it’s a feminine verb, twins Honor and Virtue guard for safe passage
TABULA
• tablets. Painted scenes of the battles or significant events of the war
• people would carry these and stop at certain parts and the people could see “oh this is the part when Titus did this or so and so was over Antiochus’s troops”; they became public historical documents, basically
• all of this ends up in the Forum of Peace
GENIUS SENATUS
"of the senate of Rome"
• the Genius of the Senate – togate man
GENIUS POPULUS

"of the people of Rome"


• the Genius of the Populus - bare chested man

AULA REGIA

- the kings hall (open to the public)


• Large hall that looks like a marble bath; Barrel vaults; One buttress survives;

• “The King’s Hall.”
• looks like a baths building covered in marble with statues of 12 Olympian gods plus Poseidon and Hercules
• had an enormous barrel vault that doesn’t survive but you can see part of it as it fell
ex: Domus Augustana (Palace of Domitian)
CENATIO IOVIS

• dining room of Jupiter


• dining room of Jupiter – could seat 100 people (usual Roman dining rooms held 9, so intimate events)

NYMPHAEUM
• elaborate fountain – would spray mists into the room and cool it
• means “place of the nymphs” or “water spirits” – fancy word for fountain
HIPPODROME / CIRCUS
the type of garden that can be found in Domus Augustana (Place of Domition)
(?) otherwise
STADION

(?)

DOMUS PRIVATA

· one suite of rooms for the emperor, and one for the empress (these are the lowest level, with 2 stories on top – they lived in a 3 story building, basically)


[ex: Hippodrome Garden, Domus Augustana]


· light came down into the large garden


· what’s left of the garden pool – niches, statues, pipes, fountains, plants, surrounded by a colonnade


· the gate would lead out to the circus maximus


· octagonal type dining rooms


· baths – cold pool and warm pool


· half of the palace that was designated for use of the emperor and the family – domus publica is the other half

DOMUS PUBLICA

for state/public dining half

DOMUS

• “house” – literally the building but also expanded to the household. All those people including the slaves and even potentially the livestock that are in the house. Generally not very big
• majordomo is the “master of the house” but really the butler – his responsibility was to make sure no one caused mischief and to impress people
FAUCES

• entrance to the house; the entryhall
• opened front doors in the morning and left them open all day
ATRIUM

• common area of the home


• characterized by open roof (impluvium)


• walls were often painted with scenes to impress


a) Central area of the home


b) Important source of water

IMPLUVIUM
a) Open roof (located over the atrium)
• open roof – means “rain inside” – the hole in the roof that captures rain water and allows it to fall into the pool in the center of the house (in the compluvium). Before running water was a source of drinking water. Normally didn’t put fish ponds in these.
CUBICULUM

a) Cubicle/bedrooms


• cubicule. All purpose room, but where people slept. Number of equally sized rooms in a Roman house

ALA

a) Hall/opened rooms room the atrium


• larger spaces, Halls, connecting to the atrium. It’s a semi-private family space while the cubicula were more private family space. It’s a wing.

TABLINUM - OECUS

a) Office- on the central axis/ where the owner of the house would receive clients


• office. Almost always on the central axis. Was where the master of the house


• also called Oecus – it’s basically the same thing.

TRICLINIUM

a) Dining room (highly decorated)


b) usually 9 people attended dining occasions and no women (Greek idea)


• dining rooms. Might be only 1 in a house. Pretty small dinners. In the oldest days, women weren’t allowed to dine with men, but by the end of the Republic they were.


• the walls were also painted to impress

PERISTYLE

• Greek style garden – surrounded by columns. Space for more statues, painting, nice garden furnishings like bird baths can be found and where you would hang out. Gone now are the vegetables because the family can just order from the grocer


• dining rooms in the garden



HORTUS

a) Garden → service garden originally with medicinal plants


• Latin word for garden


• originally means a vegetable or herb garden for food, not some fancy place to lay about and have drinks, although Romans eventually like those too.


• it’s walled in, but connected to the house


• Roman houses were very closed off, no windows, all lights were from interior light wells. Fear of people stealing in the large city and also views on privacy

TABERNAE
• patron has clients and is a client, is always somebody’s client unless you’re emperor. Greets clients who come to do business, kiss your ring, etc. after your clients come early in the morning, you run to your patron to go kiss ass. The lower on the totem pole you are, the more running around you have to do early in the morning. Was often done by noon, I think
• major domo lets you in, you talk to familiar acquaintances until it’s your turn, at the back of the visual axis you get your turn for conversation that’s probably quite brief.
• the extra rooms on the front were storefront rental spots – Romans didn’t pay property taxes
• some houses plugged those doors up and made doors inside to open on the atrium – extra living spaces
LAR (LARES pl.)

• household gods


• invisible household members


• all Roman houses ideally populated by invisible residents


• the set of household gods that belong to that property, not to the family


• they’re the impish genies that get you in trouble


• you have to make sure that the Lares and Penates like each other but there are times when you can’t do anything to make them like each other. You have to have a well run house so when they don’t get along, you just need to move

IMAGO (IMAGINES p.)

• portraits


• put on display in the atrium, used in family funerals; wax, marble and painted portraits on display in the atrium

PENATES
• household gods
• is always plural
• the Penates were the household gods that moved with you when you moved. If you don’t bring them with you, then you don’t have a household
• the Greeks didn’t have household gods in this sense; their’s was more like a genius loci; you didn’t make sacrifices to them (despite Aeneas and his father carrying the Penates from Troy)
IUS IMAGINORUM

• right of images. Families that had the right to display family portraits had the Ius of Imaginorum; the right of images. If you didn’t have this right then you couldn’t display them in your home although you might have them made

LARARIUM

• household altar to the spirits of the house


• you make sacrifices to them, you ask their advice, keep them up to date


• central altar in the atrium

FIRST STYLE PAINTING
c. 200-80 BCE
• faux marble
• dates are the dates it was common
• often stayed in, even when it was out of style because it’s hard to refresco.
• It’s as though you’re living in a palace, imitating different marbles on the walls
SECOND STYLE PAINTING
80-10 BCE
• faux architecture using elements from both:
-SKENOGRAPHIA
-SKIAGRAPHIA
SKENOGRAPHIA

-Stage/scene painting


-Fictional architecture; windows to see out to an illusionistic world

SKIAGRAPHIA
-The style of painting in Greece
-Wispy brush strokes
-Watercolor-like
-Atmospheric perspective
TROMPE-L’OEIL

• when painting gives the illusion that you can actually touch it – realistic illusion. Means “to fool the eye”


• is in inset panels in second style painting

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE

-creating the illusion of (simple) depth in space; perceptual perspective


• certain kind of linear perspective – not Renaissance linear which is 1, 2 or 3 etc point linear perspective. All lines are subject to the same mathematical perspective


• not in Cubiculun, Villa at Famius Synistor


• just means you’re creating the illusion of distance by diagonal lines


• can easily be called “Simple Linear Perspective”


• it’s a perspective system, not a mathematical one

MYSTERY RELIGION

• Cults Criteria:


=Initiation ceremony


=Martyr dies and is reborn; personal afterlife; salvation/savior• popular mystery religion to Demeter


=mystery; ex: bread and wine to body and blood; was normally secret to the initiates; specialized knowledge


• cycritism- knowingly/pretend to blend together different religions• mapping your gods onto their gods• issues with the Jews surfaced because they would not swear allegiance to the emperor as divine


· to be a member of a religious community there is an initiation (baptism etc). most mediteranean ones had a hero martyr who dies and is reborn. A mystery religion offers you an afterlife – personal salvation. In Roman religion, you existed as a sort of half shade in the underworld.


· baptism (initiation)


· salvation – soter, the savior, you’re saved from death


· there has to be a secret mystery – which might be secret or might be common knowledge – for Christianity it’s transubstantiation (the wine and bread converting to blood and body).

MEGALOGRAPHIA

• 2nd style implements but with large scale figures


• Actors as well as the set


• Fills the walls of the room


· when they take the basic framekwork of second style painting (such as a dado on the ground and some column features and geode marble at the top) and instead of filling it with floating figures, they fill it with figures themselves, so they’re like actors in the stage

The Reign of Trajan
98 - 117 CE
-No/very little history impact
-Did not get to choose anyone from his family
- was the best pick
-when the Flavian Dynasty fell with the assassination of Domition, the plan was to install a very old senator named Nerva. He reigned for almost 2 years but there was little historical impact of his reign. He chose the best man as his successor, not a family member – not a dynasty.
-was possibly the most successful soldier, commander imperator of all the emperorshe fit the bill (aristocratic) and did really well (?). he could’ve screwed over Nerva if they didn’t give him the job as next emperor
OPTIMUS PRINCEPS

· Trajan calls himself this


· “The Best Prince” – he’s the BEST of the main men


-Best of the main men


-Referencing Augustus

BASILICA ULPIA
-Largest of the basilicas

-Becomes the prototype for Christian basilicas


· business building – biggest that had ever been built


· becomes prototype for Christian basilicas


· this is the last of the traditional basilicas


· high end shopping was located here, tax offices (disputing property stuff)

GREEK & LATIN LIBRARIES

• Was dedicated to the languages


· on the other side of the Basilica Ulpia (Trajan family name)


· these libraries became the right hand and left hands of the empire; Like the letter writers

COLUMN OF TRAJAN

• New, never had been seen



CASTRUM PLAN

· military camp – set up the same every time the army stopped. Had to be constant. Sometimes were permanent, other times were camp city. The basilica was where the officers and the stables would’ve been – cavalry and high officers. Imperator (emperor or emperor’s agent) would have his own tent. When the emperor went to war, he had to have 2 high ranking agents with him – Epistolares (letter writers) – one Greek, one Latin. Lots of record keeping, but very slow. If you lead a province and wanted to execute a criminal, you had to write the emperor for approval – these people were the ones who received the letters and wrote rescripts (replies) – those rescripts were law all over the empire. Romans invented precedent law. Lawyers started thriving as a class under Trajan. You couldn’t ignore those letters. Marcus Aurelius wrote about how taxing it was to spend all day writing letters and the people were exhausted – “it’s like micromanaging every person in the empire”


· high ranking people would be tented where the basilica was


· the military standards are kept in the praetorian tent until deployed and into battle formation

DACIA
· province that is today Romania
DACIAN WARS

· wars Trajan fought

COMMENTARII

· written records of the war, published by generals


· imperator general’s log book of everything that happened – (“captain’s log, star date _____” snicker). Every general wrote them. Almost all of Caesar’s of the Gallic war survives – it’s reports he sent home. Trajan’s actually commentaries are lost, so we don’t know if this is literally his depiction, but it’s like a scroll – if you rolled out all of his scrolls


· the idea that generals regularly published cleaned up versions of the accounts of their battles; likely the inspiration for the column of trajan



SPIRAL FRIEZE
a frieze that starts at the bottom and goes to the top
ALIMENTA

dole, food welfare (like food stamps) for the Italian citizens


• Families could get daily bread in Italy (this arch is to honor Trajan)

The Reign of Hadrian
117 - 138 CE
· is the third of the so-called good emperors. A fairly good emperor, ruled over a peaceful-ish empire.
· when Trajan died, he had captured Mesopotamia for the first time (Iraq, the Tigris and Euphrates) he died on his way back home to Rome, likely not foul play
· Trajan only held it for a few months, Hadrian said “nah, that was a mistake, we’ll give it back”
· he’d left succession ambiguous, but his sister’s granddaughter, who was his heir, married Hadrian, who was thought to be his hair. Plotina orchestrated things so that Hadrian came to power
· Hadrian established 2 reigns with no wars – his (?) and the next guy, who never even left Rome (Antonius?)
· Hadrian visited almost every province in Rome
-3rd of the 5 “Good Emperors”
- Wasn’t a bad ruler but the state was left in good shape prior and during his rule (he did not have to do much to rule)
- Trajan had conquered Mesopotamia (parthain empire)
- Hadrian gave the Parthian empire back the land
- Plotina worked out Hadrian as Trajan’s successor
- Hadrian begins the two reigns with no war (his and the emperor to follow) Lover of Greek Culture
-Traveled all over the empire; was the first emperor to do so; helped his reputation
· themes of his reign: consolidation of empire. No war. Hadrian was a traveler, went to most of the provinces. As a traveler, the elites of those provinces got to know him individually and people saw him on the move
· changing idea of where the empire is located – there’s the eternal city (Rome) with its institutions and palaces, but when the emperor’s on the move, the government moves with him, so there’s a notion of belonging that’s cultivated by that· the possibility of travel, increasing stability of the world inside the borders – greater policing, fewer pirates, fewer highway robbers. People started travelling for tourism and religious pilgrimages
· the idea of growth – you could travel because it was safe
· the empire was a travelable empire. It wasn’t expanding anymore
· the notion of empire as a collection of provinces: coming up. Not where the barbarians and civilians live, but equals
· as always, greek cultural forms become the language of expression thoughout the provinces; 2nd century -2nd sophistic, greek “renaissance” – we won’t talk about it really though. Greek culture is the one to love, Hadrian promoted that by being a philhellene
PHILHELLENE / PHILHELLENIC

term used for “beloved of Greek culture” in proud reference to one’s self


· Greece-lover or beloved of Greek culture


-is to be fond of Greek culture


· Hadrian would've called himself this


· this is probably largely why Hadrianwore the beard

GRAECULUS

term used as an insult to someone who loves Greek culture “Greekling,” insults others would use toward lover of Greek culture


· Greek-ling. Was an insult referred to Greek lovers, had a real unmanly bite to it; like “Greek bitch” but worse or something

PEDERASTY

• Classical Athens (elite male practice to take on a young male as apprentice


• Likely contained instances of sexual practice


• Homosexual tendencies were not to be made public


• Acceptable if it was a young male pursued by older males, was to end when boy became a man


• was a known and respected practice


· Greek. Hadrian promoted this.


· elite male practice, almost like taking a boy from another family and mentoring him, or choosing a girl from another family as a bride


· it literally means “boy worship”


· there were sometimes lover relationships, but it was usually to train the boy for adulthood and leadership. the language of the relationship was sexual, even if a lot of it wasn’t


· it went away after Athens became an oligarchy - lasted about 70 years. the practice was so ensconsed in classical literature (socrates etc) that everyone knew it


· Hadrian used this to justify his relationship with him, he called Antinous his Eromenos

ERASTES

· the lover


-the older male who takes a young boy to mentor him

EROMENOS

- the young male


• “The one who is loved”


• beloved boy/younger male who is mentored by an older male

ANTINOUOPOLIS

• A city build by Hadrian for Antinous where her drowned


· a city Hadrian had built at the place where Antinous drowned – a legit city


· there were hundreds of temples throughout the empire, one was on top of the palatine hill. Many of them still survive

ADVENTUS

-greeting/meetings with the province; • ceremonies for imperial arrival


-greeting/arrival at a city


· big holiday, important for traveling emperors

PROFECTIO

returning to a city (what would be held in Rome)


· Rome would throw a huge party when the Emperor had returned

SALUTATIO

low level greeting


· a lower level, smaller scale Adventus (without the massive parade/party thing)

PONTUS ET BITHYNIA



· the Region Antoninus was from

PROVINCIA

(?) the province

PYTHAGOREAN NUMBER MYSTICISM

• Mathematics that implement the mind of gods→ geometry and numerical


• 3 and 4→ 7 and 12: are the magical unifying numbers


• 3→ referencing the trinity and divine number


• 4→ earthly elements, directions, seasons


• 7 and 12 are the two numbers formed from 3 and 4 (3+4=7 and 3x4=12)


• shows numbers of divinity


• Square and circle (in the Pantheon)→ combination of heaven and earth


· creator was Greek mathematician


· you can take math and think it has mysterious practices. People followed him almost as a religious leader – thinking he was trying to understand the truth of the divine. So a lot of number symbolism that still exists


· magic numbers – 7 and 12, combinations of 3 and 4 (via addition and multiplication). 3 is the perfect number in religion (trinity – even in Rome since the beginning) – 4 is the earthly perfect number – the 4 directions, and earth, air, wind and fire


· the idea that numbers reveal the true nature of the divine

The Antonine Dynasty
138 - 192 CE
- was appointed by Hadrian and appointed Marcus Aurelius as the successor
- Faux-dynastic connections and relations
-Hadrian dies of old age; he had appointed an heir, like Trajan before him. He also appointed a successor Marcus Aurelius (who was related to Hadrian or his wife and who married this emperor’s daughter
-men appoint a competent male successor (or 2 in this case) and women are used to marry them and to connect into a fictional kind of dynasty
ANTONINUS PIUS
(138-161)
• The emperor appointed by Hadrian
MARCUS AURELIUS
(161-180)
Antonine's successor appointed by Hadrian

LUCIUS VERUS
(161-169)
ruled alongside Marcus Aurelius and married Marcus' daughter Lucilla
COMMODUS
(180-192)
• Son of Marcus Aurelius
• First natural born son to rule since Julio-Claudian
-rules after Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus
LUCIUS AELIUS
(136-138)
(?)
FAUSTINA THE ELDER
(138-140)
• Married to Antonine Pius
• Died shortly after become empress
FAUSTINA THE YOUNGER
(161-176)
daughter of Antonine and Faustina the Elder
• Married to Marcus Aurelius
LUCILLA
(161-182)
• Daughter of Marcus Aurelius
• Married Lucius Verus
DECURSIO
• Processional circuit; Cavalry honorific parade
· a cavalry maneuver to show off the horses and training; it’s a cavalry honorific parade
USTRINUM

• Pyre for body burning- where the eagle (spirit/numen) ascends


· the pyre on which the body is placed and burnt and the eagle is released to represent the soul being taken to heaven