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Evolution

Any change in the genetic constitution of a population of organisms

Evolutionary Force

Any factor in the external environment or in the bodies of the organisms themselves that induces shifts in the frequencies of genes within populations

Change

What is Inheritance based on?

Genetics

Cline

Some measurable gradual change over a geographic region in the average of some phenotypic or genotypic character such as color, size, and gene frequency

Natural Selection

The differential contribution of offspring to the next generation by various genetic types of belonging to the same population

Bottleneck

An event that drastically changes the population and genetic make-up of a population

Think of a freeze destroying a population majority

What are the 3 modesl of natural selection?

Stabilizing


Disruptive


Directional

Punctuated Equilibrium

the hypothesis that evolutionary development is marked by isolated episodes of rapid speciation between long periods of little or no change.

What kind of model is this?

What kind of model is this?

Punctuated Equilibrium model

What does Sexual Selection refer to?

The choosing of certain traits that will benefit the animals in finding a mate, but may harm them trying to survive from predators

Niche

Place occupied by a species in its ecosystem, where it eats, what it eats, its foraging route, the season of its activity, and so on

Niche Release

When one species moves to a new ecosystem with few competitors

Evolutionary Convergence

The occupation of the same niche by products of different adaptive radiations, especially in different parts of the world

What is a species?

Groups of interbreeding natrual populations that are reproductively isolated from other groups (Mayr 1942)



A lineage, a collection of organisms that share a unique evolutionary history and are held together by the cohesive forces of reproduction (Wilson 1992)



Two different definitions

What is the origin of species?

The evolution of some difference, any difference at all that prevents the production of fertile hybrids between populations under natural conditions

Why is Carlos Linnaeus important?

He is considered the father of animal classification

What is the order of animal classification?

Kingdom


Phylum


Subphylum


Class


Order


Family


Genus

What is analogous structures?

Animals that look the same, but do not come from common ancestors. They may look the same because they occupy a common niche

Homologous structures

These characters are from a common ancestor and are use in the cladistics (classification of organisms based on the branchings of descendant lineages from a common ancestor.)

What is Taxa?

a taxonomic category, as a species or genus.

Taxa is plural for taxon

What does the word Clades mean?

Grouping

What is the polarity of characters?

Whether each character state is original or derived in each taxon

What is synapomorphies?

Shared derived characteristics

What is plesiomorphies?

Original or "primitive" characteristics

What is another term from Homoplasy?

Convergence

What is a monophyletic group?

A group containing the most recent common ancestors and all of its descendants

What type of graph is this?

What type of graph is this?

A cladogram

What is a paraphyletic phylogeny?

A paraphyletic group contains the most recent common ancestors of all members and some but not all of its descendants

What is a polyphyletic phylogeny?

A polyphletic group does not contain the most recent common ancestor

Where are alternative alleles of genes located?

homologous chromosomes

think of the same thing

What is a mictotubul made of?

13 strands of tubulin molecules

What is the order of the cell cycle?

Interphase


Prophase


Metaphase


Anaphase


Telophase

Where does Mitosis go into affect?

Prophase

Metaphase


Anaphase


Telophase


Who is this, and what is he known for?

Who is this, and what is he known for?

This is Gregor Mendel and he is know for being the founder of genetics

What is Mendel's principle of segregation?

States that pairs of hereditary factors (alleles) are distributed between gametes during gamete formation

What does Mendel's principle of independent assortment say?

During gamete formation pairs of factors segregate independently of one another



What are dominant factors?

They hide the expression of another factor





What are recessive factors?

Those whose expression could be masked

What is an allele?

The alternative form of a gene

What does Homozygous mean?

The gene has two identical alleles for a give trait

AA, BB, CC, aa, bb, cc, etc.

What does heterozygous mean?

The gene has two different alleles for a given trait

Aa, Bb, Cc, aA, bB, cC, etc.

What does codominant mean?

An interaction between two alleles that express equally

What is the standard ratio in a dihybrid cross?

9:3:3:1

How many unique genotypes are there?

9

What is Epistasis?

One gene masks the expression of a different gene for a different trait

What is Dominance?

One allele masks the expression of another allele of the same gene

What is the unit of transmission during meiosis?

Chromosome

In _______ there is a reciprocal exchange of chromosome segments

prophase

What is the reciprocal exchange of chromosome segments called?

Crossing over

What is a loci?

the chromosomal position of a gene as determined by its linear order relative to the other genes on that chromosome.