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118 Cards in this Set

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Taxonomy

Ordered division and naming of organisms: two-part naming system

Cladistics

Groups organism by common ancestor

Systematics

Depict evolutionary relationships in branching phylogenetic trees

Taxonomic levels

Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus species

Paraphyletic

Pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants

Polyphyletic

Pertaining to a group of taxa that includes distantly related organisms but does not include their most recent common ancestor

Monophyletic

Pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and all of its descendants. Equivalent to a clade

Biological organization

Biosphere, ecosystem, communities, populations, organisms, organs and organ systems, tissues, cells, organelles, molecules

Macromolecules

Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids,carbohydrates

Xylem

Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from the roots to the rest of the plants

Phloem

Vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant

Cuticle

A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that prevent dessication in terrestrial plants

Spores

In the life cycle of a plant or alga undergoing alternation of generations, a haploid cell produced in the sporophyte by meoisis. A spore can divide by mitosis to help develop into a multicellular haploid individual, without fusing with another cell.

Seeds

An adaption of some terrestrial plants consisting of an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a protective coat

Guard cells

The two cells that flank the stomatal pore and regulate the opening and closing of the pore

Lignin

A strong polymer embedded in the cellulose matrix of the secondary cell walls of vascular plants that provides structural support in terrestrial species

Cellulose

A structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by glycosidic linkages

Cell wall

A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in the cells of plants, prokaryotes, fungi, and some protists. Cellulose:plants chitin:fungi peptidoglycan:bacteria

Chlorophyll a

A photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions which convert solar energy to chemical energy

Chlorophyll b

An accessory photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a

Chitin

A structural polysaccaride consisting of aminosugar monomers found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeleton of arthropods

Haustoria

A specialized hypa that can penetrate the tissues of host organisms

mycelium

The densely branched network of hypae in fungus

Lichen

Symbiotic association between a photosynthetic microorganism and a fungus

Arbuscular mycorrhizae

Extend branching hypae throughout the root cell wall and into tubes formed by invagination

Karyogamy

The fusion of haploid nuclei contributed by the two parents, proceeded by plasmogamy

Sporopollenin

A durable polymer that covers exposed zygotes of chatophyte algae and forms walla of plant spores preventing them from drying out

Septa

One of the cross walls that divide a fungal hyphae into cells. Generally have pores large enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and nuclei to flow from cell to cell

Zygomycota

Characterized by the formation of a sturdy structure called a zygosporangium during sexual reproduction (a place where karyogamy occurs)

Ascomycota

Commonly called sac fumgus . name comes from the sac like structure in which spores develop

Basidiomycota

Commonly called club fungus. Name comes from the club like basidium. (A reproductive appendage that produces sexual spores on the gills of mushrooms)

Glomeromycota

Characterized by the distinct branching form of mycorrhizae called arbuscular mycorrhizae

Chytridiomycota

Mostly aquatic fungi with flagelated zoospores that represents an early diverging fungal lineage

Charophyceans

Green algae

Bryophytes

Moss, liverwart. Nonvascular plant that lives on land but lacks some of the terrestrial adaptions of vascular plants

Lycophytes

Includes club mosses

Gymnosperms

A vascular plant that beats naked seeds- seeds not enclosed on chambers

Angiosperms

A flowering plant which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary

Hox genes

Determine how the body will form

Gastrulation

A series of cell and tissue movements in which the blastula stage embryo folds inward producing a three layered embyro (the gastrula- ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm)

Amoebocytes

Amoeba like cell that moves by pseudopodia and is found in most animals. Depending the species it may digest and distribute food, dispose of waster. Form skeletal fibers, fight infections, or change into other cell types

Choanocyte

Flagellated collar cells that generate water current through the sponge and ingest suspended food

Cnidocytes

Unique cells that function in defense and capture of prey

Nematocysts

Specialized cells within cnidocytes that eject a stinging thread

Lateral line

Series of pores and receptors along the sides of the body in fishes to detect water movement and vibrations

Foot

Found on a mollusc, used for movement

Chelicerae

Claw like feeding appendages (sea spiders, ticks mites etc)

4 essential nutrients

Essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals

Types of feeders

Filter feeders, suspension feeders

Nutrition process

Ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination

Digestion

Liver, pancreas, gall bladder have a significant effect on the digestion of macraloecules

Stomach

Stores food and secretes gastric juice which converts a meal to acid chyme

Protein

Digested in the stomach

Bile

Aids is absorption

Single circulation

Boney fish and sharks have single circulation, blood leaving the 2 chambered heart passes through 2 capillary beds before returning

Double circulation

Amphibian and reptiles, oxygen poor and oxygen rich blood are pumped separately from the left and right side of the heart

Vertebrae hearts

Contain 2 or more chambers, blood enters through the atrium and is pumped out through the ventricle

SA node

Sinoatrial node, or the pacemaker, sets rate and timing at which the cardiac muscle cells contract

SA node

Influenced by nerves, giones, body temperature and exercise

Capilaries

Have thin walla to facilitate the exchange of materials

Capilaries

Have thin walla to facilitate the exchange of materials

Arteries

Have thicker walla than veins to accommodate high bp pumped from the heart

Heart attack

Death of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from a blockage of one or more coronary arteries

Stroke

Death of the nervous tissue in the brain, usually resulting from rupture or blockage of arteries in the head

Blood components

Red blood cells transport 02, white blood cells act in defense, platelets help clot, and plasma contains ions, water and nutrients

Osmoregulation

Regulates solute concentrations and balances the gain and loss of water

Osmoconformers

Consisting of only some marine animals, are isoosmotic with their surrounding

Osmoregulator

Expend energy to control water uptake and loss in a hyperosomtatic or hypoosmotic environment

Metanephridia

Occur in each segment of the earthworm, consist of tubules that collect coelomic fluid and produce dilute unrine for excretion

Nephron

The functional unit of the vertebrae kidney, consists of a single long tubule and a ball of capillaries called glomerulus

Kidneys

The excretory organs of vertebraes , function in both excretion and osmoregulation

Malpighian tubules

Occur in insects and other terrestrial arthropods, remove nitrogenous wastes from hemolymph and function in osmoregulation

Parthenogenesis

Development of embryo from an unfertilized egg, male and female nuclei fail to unite after fertilization

Cleavage

Rapid cell division

Gastrulation

The movement of cells from the blastila surface to the interior of the embryo

Organogenesis

Formation of organs

Gastrulation

Rearranges the cells of the blastula into a three layered embryo called the gastrula

Gastrulation produces

Ectoderm-outer layer endoderm- lines the digestive tract mesoderm- partly fills the space between the endoderm and the ectoderm

Chorion

Functions in gas exchange

Amnion

Encloses the amniotic fluid

Yolk sac

Encloses the yolk

Allantosis

Disposes of waste products and contributes to gas exchange

Asexual

Only one parent, widespread in bacteria, no special reproductive organs, ensures rapid increase in numbera

Binary fission

Asexual reproductive method- common among bacteria and protozoa, parent divides by mitosis, can be lengthwise or transverse

Sporogamy

Form of multiple fission in parasitic protozoa

Budding

Unequal division of an organism, bud is an outgrowth of the parent, develops organs and then detatches, occurs in cnidarias

Sexual reproduction

Generally involves 2 parents, special germ cells unite to form a zygote, richer more diverse population

Fragmentation

Multicellular animal breaking into many fragments that become a new animal occurs in anemones and hydroids

Oviparous

Egg birth, lays egg outside of body

Ovoviviparous

Retain eggs in their body, egg live birth

Viviparous

Live birth

Nerve net

Cnidaria

Radial nerve

Echinodermata

Brain and nerve cord

Flatworm and annelida

CNS and PNS

Vertebraes

CNS

Composed of the brain and spinal cord

PNS

Composed of nerves and ganglia

Spinal cord

Conveys info from and to the brain, produces reflexes independently of the brain

Gray matter

Consists of neuron cell bodies, dendrites and unmyelinated axons

White matter

Consists of bundles of myelinated axons

Cerebral spinal fluid

Central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain are filled with CSF. CSF is filtered from blood and functions to cushion the brain and spinal cord as well as to provide nutrients and remove waste

Gilia

Numerous functions to nourish, support and regulate neurons

PNS

Consists of the motor system and the autonomic nervous system

Motor system

Carries signals to the skeletal muscles and is voluntary

Autonomic nervous system

Regulates smooth and cardiac muscles and is generally involuntary

Autonomic nervous system

Has parasympathetic, sympathetic, and enteric division

Sympathetic

Regulates arousal and energy generation

Parasympathetic

Has antagonistic effects on target organs and promotes calming and a return to rest and digest functions

Enteric

Controls activity of the digestive tract, pancreas, and gallbladder

Afferent neurons

Send from sensory to CNS

Efferent

Send from CNS TO PNS

PNS

Transmits info to and from the CNS and regulates movement and the internal environment

Cerebellum

Coordination

Occipital lobe

Visual

Partial lobe

Sensory

Frontal lobe

Motor cortex, muscles, decision making and planning

Temporal lobe

Hearing

Hippocampus

Short and long term memory