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148 Cards in this Set

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Outside Strategies
The tactics employed outside Washington DC by interest groups seeking to achieve their policy goals.
Peak Associations
Interest groups whose members are businesses or other organizations rather than individuals.
Political Action Committees (PAC)
An interest group or a division of an interest group that can raise money to contribute to campaigns or to spend on ads in support of candidates. The amount a PAC can receive from each of its donors and the amount it can spend on federal electioneering are strictly limited.
Purposive Benefits
Satisfaction derived from the ecperience of working toward a desired policy goal, even if the goal is not achieved.
Referendum
A general vote by the electorate on a single political question that has been referred to them for a direct decision.
Revolving Door
The movement of individuals from government positions to jobs with interest groups or lobbying firms, and vice versa.
Salience
the state or condition of being prominent
Selective Incentives
Benefits that can motivate participation in a group effort because they are available only to those who participate, such as member services offered by interest groups.
Single-Issue Groups
A group that focuses on one issue Politically
Solidary Benefits
Satisfaction derived from the experience of working with like minded people, even if the groups efforts do not achieve the desired impact.
Taking the Late Train
election support for a candidate, especially when switching from a losing candidate to a winning one
Trade Association
An interest group composed of companies in the same business or industry (the same “trade”) that lobbies for policies that benefit members of the group.
Astroturf Lobbying
Any lobbying method initiated by an interest group that is designed to look like the spontaneous, independent participation of many individuals.
Centralized Groups
Interest groups that have a headquarters, usually in Washington DC , as well as members and field offices throughout the country. In general, these groups lobbying decisions are made at headquarters by the group leaders.
Citizen Groups
A group of people (citizens) who have joined a movement in free-association
Coercion
A method of eliminating nonparticipation or free riding by potential group members by requiring participation, as in many labor unions.
Confederations
Interest groups made up of several independent, local organizations that provide much of their funding and hold most of the power.
Direct Lobbying
Attempts by interest group staff to influence policy by speaking with elected officials or bureaucrats.
Economic Groups
Almost any group with similar interests which could be impacted (positively or negatively) by government decisions
501c Organizations
a tax code classification that applies to most interest groups; this designation makes donations to the group tax-deductible but limits the groups political activities.
527 Organizations
a tax-exempt group formed primarily to influence elections through voter mobilization efforts and issue ads that do not directly endorse or oppose a candidate. Unlike political action committees, they are not subject to contribution limits and spending caps.
Free Riding
The incentive to benefit from others work without making a contribution, which leads individuals in a collective action situation to refuse to work together.
Grassroots Lobbying
A lobbying strategy that relies on participation by group members, such as a protest or a letter-writing campaign.
Initiative
The power or opportunity to act or take charge before others do
Inside Strategies
The tactics employed within Washington DC by interest groups seeking to achieve their policy goals.
Interest Group Entrepreneurs
An interest group organizer or leader
Interest Groups
An organization of people who share common political interests and aim to influence public policy by electioneering and lobbying.
K Street
a major thoroughfare in the United States capital of Washington, D.C. known as a center for numerous think tanks, lobbyists, and advocacy groups.
Latent
Opinion
An opinion formed on the spot, when it is needed (as distinct from a deeply held opinion that is stable over time)
Lobbying
Efforts to influence public policy through contact with public officials on behalf of an interest group.
Mass Association
Interest groups that have a large number of dues- paying individuals as members.
What do interest groups do and how do they differ from parties?
An interest group has a focus on a single subject, or a series of closely related subjects. A political party is a group of people who (mostly) agree on a comprehensive series of policy areas covering every aspect of governmental influence.
Apportionment
The process of assigning the 435 seats in the house to the states based on increases or decreases in state population.
Bicameralism
The system of having two chambers within one legislative body, like the house and senate in the US congress.
Casework
Assistance provided by members of congress to their constituents in solving problems with the federal bureaucracy or addressing other specific concerns.
Closed rules
set time limits on debate and restrict the passage of amendments
Cloture
A procedure through which the senate can limit the amount of time spent debating a bill (cutting off a filibuster), if a supermajority of sixty senators agree.
Conference committees
Temporary committees created to negotiate differences between the house and senate versions of a piece of legislation that has passed through both chambers.
Delegate
A member of congress who loyally represents constituents direct interests.
Descriptive representation
When a member of congress shares the characteristics (such as gender, race, religion, or ethnicity) of his or her constituents.
Earmarks
Federally funded local projects attached to bills passed through congress.
Electoral connection
The idea that congressional behavior is centrally motivated by members desire for re-election.
Filibuster
A tactic used by senators to block a bill by continuing to hold the floor and speak- under the senate rule of unlimited debate- until the bills supporters back down.
Gerrymandering
Attempting to use the process of redrawing district boundaties to benefit a political party, protect incumbents, or change the proportion of minority voters in a district.
Gridlock
An inability to enact legislation because of partisan conflict within congress or between congress and the president.
Joint committees
Committees that contain members of both the house and senate but have limited authority.
Legislative veto
A form of oversight in which congress overturns bureaucratic decisions.
Majority leader
The elected head of the party holding the majority of seats in the house or senate.
Markup
One of the steps through which a bill becomes a law, in which the final wording of the bill is determined.
Minority leader
The elected head of the party holding the minority of seats in the house or senate.
Omnibus legislation
Large bills that often cover several topics and may contain extraneous, or pork barrel, projects.
Open rules
permit amendment from the floor of the house
Party unity
The extent to which members of congress in the same party vote together on party votes.
Party votes
A vote in which the majority of one party opposes the position of the majority of the other party.
Pocket veto
The automatic death of a bill passed by the house and senate when the president fails to sign the bil in the last ten days of a legislative session.
Politico
A member of congress who acts as a delegate on issues that constituents care about (such as immigration reform) and as a trustee on more complex or less salient issues (some foreign policy or regulatory matters).
Pork barrel
Legislative appropriations that benefit specific constituents, created with the aim of helping local representatives win re-election.
Position taking
to vote a certain way.
President pro tempore
A largely symbolic position usually held by the most senior member of the majority party in the senate.
Reciprocity
The practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit, esp. privileges granted by one country or organization to another.
Redistricting
Redrawing the geographic boundaries of legislative districts. This happens every ten years to ensure that districts remain roughly equal in population.
Roll call vote
A recorded vote on legislation. Members may bot yes, no, abstain, or present.
Select committees
Committees in the house or senate created to address a specific issue for one or two terms.
Seniority
The informal congressional norm of choosing the member who has served the longest on a particular committee to be the committee chair.
Speaker of the House
The elected leader of the house of representatives.
Standing committees
Committees that are a permanent part of the house or senate structure, holding more importance and authority than other committees.
Substantive representation
When a member of congress represents constituents interests and policy concerns.
Suspension of the rules
is the specific set of procedures within the United States Congress that allows for the general parliamentary procedure notion of how and when to suspend the rules.
Trustee
A member of congress who represents constituents interests while also taking into account national, collective, and moral concerns that sometimes cause the member to vote against the preference of a majority of constituents.
Universalism
a theological doctrine that all human beings will eventually be saved
Veto
A constitutional right to reject a decision or proposal made by a law-making body
Whip system
An organization of house leaders who work to disseminate information and promote party unity in voting on legislation.
Vesting Clause
Article two, section one, of the constitution which states that “executive power shall be vested in a president of the USA” making the president both the head of government and the head of state.
Head of State
One role of the president, through which he or she represents the country symbolically and politically.
Recess Appointment
Selection by the president of a person to be an ambassador or the head of a department while the senate is not in session, thereby bypassing senate approval. Unless approved by a subsequent senate vote, recess appointees serve only to the end of the congressional term.
Executive Orders
Proclamations made by the president that change government policy without congressional approval.
Fast-Track Authority
the authority of the President of the United States to negotiate international agreements that the Congress can approve or disapprove but cannot amend or filibuster
First-Mover Advantage
the advantage gained by the initial ("first-moving") significant occupant of a market segment
Executive Agreement
An agreement between the executive branch and a foreign government, which acts as a treaty but does not require senate approval.
State of the Union
An annual speech in which the president addresses congress to report on the condition of the country and recommend policies.
Executive Privilege
The right of the president to keep executive branch conversations and correspondence confidential from the legislative and judicial branches.
Party Leaders
the most powerful official within a political party
Executive Office of the President
(EOP)
The group of policy related offices that serves as support staff to the president.
Cabinet
The group of 15 executive department heads who implement the presidents agenda in their respective positions.
Unilateral Action
Independent acts of foreign policy undertaken by a nation without the assistance or coordination of other nations.
Unitary Executive Theory
is a theory of American constitutional law holding that the President controls the entire executive branch
Signing Statement
A document issued by the president when signing a bill into law explaining his interpretation of the law, which often differs from the interpretation of congress, in an attempt to influence how the law will be implemented.
Impeachment
A negative or checking power over the other branches that allows congress to remove the president, vice president, or other officers of the US for abuses of power.
Bureaucracy
The system of civil servants and political appointees who implement congressional or presidential decisions, also known as the administrative state.
Civil Servants
Employees of bureaucratic agencies within the government.
Political Appointees
People selected by an elected leader, such as the president, to hold a government position.
Regulation
A rule that allows the government to excersise control over individuals and corporations by restricting certain behaviors.
Street-Level Bureaucrats
is the subset of a public agency or government institution containing the individuals who carry out and enforce the actions required by laws and public policies
State Capacity
The knowledge, personnel, and institutions that the government requires to effectively implement policies.
Red Tape
Excessive or unnecessarily complex regulations imposed by the bureaucracy.
Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s)
Rules that lower level bureaucrats must follow when implementing policies.
Problem of Control
A difficulty faced by elected officials in ensuring that when bureaucrats implement policies, they follow these officials intentions but still have enough discretion to use their expertise.
Principal-Agent Game
The interaction between a principal (such as the president or congress), who needs something done, and an agent (such as a bureaucrat), who is responsible for carrying out the principals orders.
Regulatory Capture
occurs when a regulatory agency, created to act in the public interest, instead advances the commercial or special concerns of interest groups that dominate the industry or sector it is charged with regulating
Neutral Competence
It is a skilled bureaucracy that does not get involved in politics
The New Deal
The set of policies proposed by president franklin Roosevelt and enacted by congress between 1933 and 1935 to promote economic recovery and social welfare during the great depression.
Federal Civil Service
A system created by the 1883 Pendleton civil service act in which bureaucrats are hired on the basis of merit rather than political connections.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
An office within the executive office of the president that is responsible for creating the presidents annual budget proposal to congress, reviewing proposed rules, and other budget related tasks.
Independent Agencies
Government offices or organizations that provide government services and are not part of an executive department.
Turkey Farms
agencies filled with former campaign staffers with thin resumes
Bureaucratic Drift
Bureaucrats tendency to implement policies in a way that favors their own political objectives rather than following the original intentions of the legislation.
Oversight
Congressional efforts to make sure that laws are implemented correctly by the bureaucracy after they have been passed.
Police Patrol Oversight
A method of oversight in which members of congress constantly monitor the bureaucracy to make sure that laws are implemented correctly.
Fire Alarm Oversight
A method of oversight in which members of congress respond to complaints about the bureaucracy or problems of implementation only as they arise rather than exercising constant vigilance.
Judiciary Act of 1789
The law in which congress laid out the organization of the federal judiciary. The law refined and clarified federal court jurisdiction and set the original number of justices at six. It also created the office of the attorney general and established the lower federal courts.
District Courts
Lower level trial courts of the federal judicial system that handle most US federal cases.
Appellate Jurisdiction
The authority of a court to hear appeals from lower courts and change or uphold the decision.
Judicial Review
The supreme courts power to strike down a law or executive branch action that it finds unconstitutional.
Writs of Mandamus
A writ or order that is issued from a court of superior jurisdiction that commands an inferior tribunal, corporation, Municipal Corporation, or individual to perform, or refrain from performing, a particular act, the performance or omission of which is required by law as an obligation.
Constitutional Interpretation
The process of determining whether a piece of legislation or governmental action is supported by the constitution.
Statutory Interpretation
The various methods and tests used by the courts for determining the meaning of a law and applying it to specific situations, congress may overturn the courts interpretation by writing a new law, thus it also engages in statutory interpretation.
Plaintiff
The person or party who brings a case to court.
Defendant
The person or party against whom a case is brought.
Verdict
A decision on a disputed issue in a civil or criminal case or an inquest.
Plea Bargain
An agreement between a plaintiff and defendant to settle a case before it goes to trial or the verdict is decided, in a civil case this usually involves an admission of guilt and an agreement on monetary damages. In a criminal case it often involves an admission of guilt in return for a reduced charge or sentence.
Standard of Proof
A duty placed upon a civil or criminal defendant to prove or disprove a disputed fact.
Burden of Proof
the duty of proving a disputed charge
Adversarial System
is a legal system where two advocates represent their parties' positions before an impartial person or group of people, usually a jury or judge, who attempt to determine the truth of the case
Common Law
Law based on the precedent of previous court rulings rather than on legislation. It is used in all federal courts and forty nine of the fifty state courts.
Precedent
A legal norm established in court cases that is then applied to future cases dealing with the same legal questions.
Standing
Legitimate justification for bringing a civil case to court.
Jurisdiction
The sphere of a courts legal authority to hear and decide cases.
Constitutional Courts
is a high court that deals primarily with constitutional law
Legislative Courts
refer to courts created by legislature, other than courts created by constitution. Legislative courts are set up for some specialized purpose
Appeals Courts
The intermediate level of federal courts that hear appeals from district courts. More generally an appeals court is any court with appellate jurisdiction.
Senatorial Courtesy
A norm in the nomination of district court judges in which the president consults with his partys senators from the relevant state in choosing the nominee.
Original Jurisdiction
The authority of a court to handle a case first, as in the supreme courts authority to initially hear disputes between two states. However, original jurisdiction for the supreme court is not exclusive; it may assign such a case to a lower court.
Cases on Appeal
the statement which an appellant lays before the court for the prosecution of his appeal as the presentation of the facts on which the appeal is based
Writ of Certification
an original writ or order issued by the Chancery or King's Bench, commanding officers of inferior courts to submit the record of a cause pending before them to give the party more certain and speedy justice.
Writ of Certiorari
The most common way for a case to reach the supreme court, in which at least four of the nine justices agree to hear a case that has reached them via an appeal from the losing party in a lower courts ruling.
Collusion
Secret or illegal cooperation or conspiracy
Mootness
The irrelevance of a case by the time it is received by a federal court, causing the court to decline to hear the case.
Ripeness
A criterion that federal courts use to decide whether a case is ready to be heard. A cases ripeness is based on whether its central issue or controversy has actually taken place.
Cert Pool
A system initiated in the supreme court in the 1970s in which law clerks screen cases that come to the supreme court and recommend to the justices which cases should be heard.
Solicitor General
A presidential appointee in the department of justice who conducts all litigation on behalf of the federal government before the supreme court and supervises litigation in the federal appellate courts.
Briefs
a written legal document used in various legal adversarial systems that is presented to a court arguing why one party to a particular case should prevail.
Amicus Curiae
Latin for friend of the court referring to an interested group or person who shares relevant information about a case to help the court reach a decision.
Oral Arguments
Spoken presentations made in person by the lawyers of each party to a judge or appellate court outlining the legal reasons their side should prevail.
Strict Construction
A way of interpreting the constitution based on it language alone.
Original Intent
a theory in law concerning constitutional and statutory interpretation
Living Constitution
A way or interpreting the constitution that takes ito account evolving national attitudes and circumstances rather than the text alone.
Judicial Restraint
The idea that the supreme court should defer to the democratically elected executive and legislative branches of government rather than contradicting existing laws.
Judicial Activism
The idea that the supreme court should assert its interpretation of the law even if it overrules the elected executive and legislative branches of government.